Cbd oil with melatonin for sleep

We investigate why some companies are adding melatonin to their CBD oils. Read more to learn the benefits of combining the two. Melatonin is a natural hormone associated with regulating sleep and maintaining a sleep-wake routine. CBD and Melatonin gummies work perfectly together because melatonin is easily formulated. Similarly, melatonin is commonly used to treat sleep disorders like insomnia and jet lag.

What Is Melatonin in CBD Oil? [Exploring the Benefits]

According to the CDC, adults require at least seven hours of sleep per night for better health and wellbeing. However, data from the Sleep Association shows that 50-70 million American adults have a sleep disorder. At least 30% of people have insomnia, while almost 40% have reported unintentionally falling asleep during the day.

Apart from increasing the risk of heart failure, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other medical issues, a lack of sleep contributes to over 1,500 road deaths per year in the United States alone.

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It regulates night and day sleep cycles and is often used as a sleep aid. CBD is also linked with managing healthier sleep cycles. Many companies combine the two products, which are then used to help improve sleep issues.

This article looks into the CBD and melatonin trend to determine whether such products are safe and effective. It analyses the available research and provides an overview of the best CBD with melatonin products.

Why Melatonin in CBD Oil Could Help Sleep Disorders

Melatonin and CBD oil could improve sleep patterns due to how both substances work and are accepted by the body.

Melatonin is endogenous, unlike many supplements and vitamins that we absorb – often ineffectively – solely through the digestive process. This means it appears to be made inside the body as part of normal physiological processes, and therefore, the body mobilizes it as such.

The body does not secrete CBD, but it does impact an innate physiological network known as the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS influences our appetite, immune system, mood, sleep cycles, and more.

Supplements and vitamins are like food; the digestive system breaks them down and eventually converts them into a usable form.

Conversely, melatonin and CBD interact with body systems that take them in and use them as if the body had made them itself.

How Does Melatonin Work?

Melatonin is the sleep hormone that the brain produces in response to the dark. When the sun starts to go down, the body clock tells the brain that it is time to produce melatonin.

Melatonin helps us relax, makes us feel drowsy, and gets us to sleep. It is obstructed by bright lights and triggered by darkness, and this is why experts say that sleeping in a dark room is the most beneficial for sleep.

One of the reasons that melatonin supplements have become so popular is due to a paucity of side effects.

Imbalances in melatonin production are often responsible for sleep disorders. If evading bright lights doesn’t work, then a melatonin supplement is a possible remedy. One of the reasons that melatonin supplements have become so popular is due to a paucity of side effects. It simply replicates the natural melatonin the brain produces.

Melatonin supplements help fix any imbalances and help the hormone function normally, bringing about healthy sleep. Since the body already produces the hormone, supplements aim to correct any imbalance or shortage of the hormone.

How CBD Regulates the Body

CBD is not a hormone, but a unique, non-intoxicating extract of the cannabis/hemp plant, referred to as a phytocannabinoid. Every mammal, including humans, has an ECS in its body that produces endogenous cannabinoids.

The ECS is responsible for fine-tuning many of the systems in the body. The ECS regulates and controls:

  • The nervous and digestive system
  • The brain and neuroplasticity
  • Protection and setting of cardiovascular tone
  • The sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythm
  • Body-wide inflammatory processes

The ECS accepts CBD as it would an endogenous cannabinoid, which works to fine-tune the other systems. Insomnia can sometimes occur due to a deficient ECS, and this is when CBD oil becomes so important. CBD can also help calm anxiety, racing thoughts, and tension in the body that could lead to trouble falling asleep.

Can You Take CBD With Melatonin?

Yes, it is a potentially complementary combination. However, CBD and melatonin act differently with regards to improved sleep.

CBD helps alert the brain to ensure it uses the correct neurotransmitters to help you remain asleep. This is useful if you’re used to waking up in the middle of the night.

Melatonin lets your brain and body know that it is bedtime. It gets you ready for sleep, whereas CBD can help you remain asleep. Melatonin is useful when you have jet lag or another situation where your body’s sleep-wake cycle is disrupted.

The best brands to try…

However, it is unhelpful if you wake up in the middle of the night. It can take the hormone 90 minutes to tell your brain to get sleepy. Melatonin also has a half-life of around six hours. Therefore, if you take it at 2 am and get up at 8 am, the hormone is still in your system, making you drowsy and will perhaps leave you feeling hungover.

The combination of CBD and melatonin could work together to help reduce sleep latency (the length of time it takes to fall asleep) and promote a healthier circadian rhythm. This process can lead to an improved quality of sleep.

CBD and Melatonin: What Does the Research Say?

There is little data on the efficacy of combining cannabidiol and melatonin. However, a CBD brand called New Phase Blends conducted a trial on its CBD with melatonin tincture. It claimed that almost 80% of users reported an increase in the level of deep sleep they got each night.

This is interesting data, but one must be wary of any research conducted by a brand on its own products. We need research from independent sources before taking any claims on the effectiveness of CBD and melatonin at face value.

There is plenty of research into the benefits of CBD for sleep when used separately, however. The evidence relating to melatonin is mixed, despite the assumption that it is an effective sleep aid.

CBD for Sleep Studies

A cross-sectional study published in the Journal of Cannabis Research in 2021 revealed that sleep was the fourth most prevalent reason for using CBD. Certainly, a growing body of research suggests its usefulness for improving the sleep cycle.

A study published in The Permanente Journal in 2019 analyzed the effects of CBD on sleep and anxiety in 103 adults across three months. Seventy-two volunteers completed the study. Almost 67% reported improved sleep scores within the first month, although this percentage fluctuated over time.

Nearly 80% of volunteers reported reduced levels of anxiety, which remained low for the study’s duration. This is a promising finding, given that anxiety is one of the main reasons people cannot fall asleep.

This came after a review of studies published in 2017 looked into research on cannabis, cannabinoids, and sleep up to 2014. The researchers discovered that CBD could hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness. However, they noted that research into cannabis and sleep is relatively limited and showed mixed results.

Melatonin for Sleep Studies

A systematic review published in Nutrition Journal in 2014 looked into the effectiveness of melatonin for promoting healthy sleep. It found that the use of melatonin amongst healthy adults had promise with regards to preventing phase shifts from jet lag. There was also some evidence of the hormone leading to improvements in insomnia.

However, the researchers concluded that there wasn’t enough data to confirm a positive benefit.

The mixed results from studies into melatonin’s effectiveness indicate a need for further research.

A review of studies published in 2004 was even less optimistic. The researchers wrote that the evidence pointed towards melatonin NOT being effective in treating most primary sleep disorders in the short term.

One meta-analysis published in PLoS One in 2013 reported more positive findings. The researchers looked at 19 studies featuring almost 1700 volunteers with primary sleep disorders. They found that melatonin showed significant efficacy in reducing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time.

The mixed results from studies into melatonin’s effectiveness for combatting sleep issues indicate a need for further research.

CBD with Melatonin: What Products Are Available?

Combining CBD with melatonin has quickly become popular, and there are dozens of brands selling such products. We have outlined five different CBD with melatonin products and highlighted what we feel is the best brand to choose for each one.

CBD Gummies with Melatonin – Premium Jane

Premium Jane’s Sleep-Aid CBD gummies contain 2.5mg of melatonin and 25mg of high-quality hemp extract per cube. There is also 2.5mg of CBN, GABA, and chamomile in each gummy. This product is specifically designed to help you rest and relax.

CBD Oil with Melatonin – PureKana

Among PureKana’s many CBD products lies its CBD Sleep Aid Tincture, which is available in 600mg and 1500mg bottles. The larger concentration contains 1mg of melatonin per 1ml serving and 35mg of a proprietary Sleep Terpene Rich Extract (STRE). The STRE includes lavender, hops, pine, jasmine, and ho wood.

CBD Softgels with Melatonin – Joy Organics

Joy Organics capsules have 25mg of CBD, 3mg of melatonin, and 3mg of CBN. They are ideal if you want to experiment with the CBD and melatonin combination but don’t like the taste of CBD oil.

CBD Cream with Melatonin – OSIMagnesium

This is a relatively rare product, and OSIMagnesium is one of the few brands to bring it to the market. There is 100ml of cream in total, containing 300mg of CBD and 60mg of melatonin. According to the brand, this cream offers the most bioavailable form of magnesium with magnesium chloride sourced from the ancient Zechstein seabed. OSIMagnesium recommends applying it daily after a shower.

CBD Sleep Capsules with Melatonin – Medterra

Medterra offers Liposomal CBD+ Good Night Capsules in a 30-count bottle. Each capsule contains 25mg of CBD, 3mg of melatonin, and 52mg of a Proprietary Liposomal Sleep Blend, consisting of GABA, passionflower extract, and chamomile flower extract. Medterra claims the liposomal CBD absorbs ten times faster than regular cannabidiol with 17 times the bioavailability.

Final Thoughts on Melatonin in CBD Oil

There is a debate whether melatonin is as effective for sleep as regularly claimed. Furthermore, there is scant evidence of the efficacy of a combination of CBD and melatonin. However, many people are trying such products to help them combat insomnia and anxiety close to bedtime.

The suggestion is that melatonin gets your mind ready for sleep, whereas CBD helps you remain asleep. Combining the two could ensure you get to sleep faster and enjoy a better quality of sleep. If you like the sound of this, you may want to try one of the five CBD and melatonin products we outlined above. Each one comes from a reputable and highly respected brand.

CBD+melatonin gummies for a good night sleep

Melatonin is a natural hormone associated with regulating sleep and maintaining a sleep-wake routine. CBD and Melatonin gummies work perfectly together because melatonin is easily formulated. Similarly, melatonin is commonly used to treat sleep disorders like insomnia and jet lag. A combination of natural CBD driven from hemp to 5mg of melatonin is specially designed to help get peaceful and regular sleeping patterns. Therefore, if you want to know more about CBD+ Melatonin gummies and how they relate to sleep, read on for more information.

CBD + Melatonin Gummies; Effects and Causes of Insufficient Sleep

Insufficient sleep might result in losing focus, reduction of energy, weakness in the immune system, depression, and anxiety. Yet this should not be the case. The presence of the CBD gummies for the night time which includes melatonin, saves the situation best. Additionally, combining these two products provides a calming effect that enables one to stay asleep. CBD’s calming effect enhances melatonin’s ability to enable one to fall asleep. Unlike other products that may treat sleeping disorders, these two natural combinations offer natural sleep with a refreshing sensation hence no grogginess in the morning.

Uses of the Sleep Gummies

The two products combined provide an ideal night and support to the mind, keeping it relaxed for a valuable and high-quality sleep. The night gummies from CBD products are also efficient when traveling and enhance extended night hours or recovery from jet lag. CBD night gummies also enable one to evade random thoughts from captivating them while awake.

Moreover, melatonin and hemp night gummies also assist in curbing snoring that may at times be vicious like sneezing. Additionally, one can have earplugs. Therefore, it is important to note that these products are always gluten-free. Melatonin and CBD gummies are specifically designed for efficiency in one sleeping pattern. Therefore, the purpose of the product does not encourage the use of THC since they have side effects such as anxiety. This gives the consumer all the benefits associated with calm and peaceful sleep without getting ‘high.’

Best CBD Gummies for Sleep

If you are looking forward to purchasing the best CBD gummies for sleep this year, there are some of the recommended gummies to use for sleep, from Exhale Wellness. This is a new brand in the market. Therefore, these gummies are manufactured without any elements of additives in them. Additionally, the hemp used in making these gummies is obtained from Colorado’s organic, considered environmentally friendly farms. Also, these gummies provide a more gentle feeling compared to other cannabinoid medicines.

Similarly, Budpop is popular and the best CBD gummy for sleep. Thus, the Budpop brand also sells flowers, delta-8 gummies, and cartridges verified and tested in the lab. Therefore, these types of gummies can provide an enjoyable night and calm rest at night. This product combines CBN and CBD, which offers efficient sleep when consumed. Moreover, these gummies are vegan-friendly. Also, they consist of broad-spectrum, which is a hemp extract. Other ideal gummies for sleep are from chief botanicals. These gummies have been in the market for probably 25 years. Thus, it is one of the most reliable gummies you can ever think of. Likewise, chief botanicals come in different natural flavors, including apple, pineapple, grape, orange, and Strawberry lemonade.

CBD + Melatonin Gummies for Sleep; How They’re Administered

Concerning the consumption of this product for desired results, consider starting with a low dosage and increasing the dose as time goes. There’s a Hemp extract present within each gummy in a 10mg cannabinoid broad-spectrum content. Taking the gummies daily each morning enhances balance. One may also decide to take them some 30 minutes before going to bed for a restful night sleep. Furthermore, one should attentively observe their body patterns and reception of the CBD night gummies daily and weekly. According to the accompanying effects, one may also adjust their dosage to receive their desired effect. To get the best results, it’s advisable to observe a specific intake routine for 30 days.

Best Place to Buy CBD Gummies for Sleep

Shopping online may be ideal in need of wide selection access. This is because you will have the option of accessing the product from the comfort of your specific location and get it delivered. In-person selection to a store is a more effective and advisable way of getting the CBD product because of the availability of advisory personnel. At times, it might be quite challenging, especially if the pharmaceuticals may not be willing to advise on CBD products. Get advice on CBD products online or for experienced users of CBD. For health concerns, consult a doctor before purchasing or using CBD products, especially for sleeping-related disorders like insomnia.


CBD + melatonin gummies are efficient in providing a good night sleep due to the calmness effect within hemp. This blended product also allows one to sleep consistently and have relaxed mornings. CBD gummies are the best option for improving sleeping patterns naturally and have been tested for potency and purity. Therefore, they pose fewer risks. They are also easy to acquire and administer. One should also ensure that they do not use the product for medicinal purposes without proper consultation with a doctor. Though there might be enough information on the internet concerning the CBD night gummies, it is important to get well informed on the proper dosage and administration before taking them.

Cbd tincture alcohol vs oil

When it comes to CBD tincture vs CBD oil many think they're the same. They're really different products in similar containers. Click to learn more.

CBD Tincture vs. CBD Oil: Is There a Difference?

CBD News & Resources / CBD Tincture vs. CBD Oil: Is There a Difference?

When it comes to CBD tincture vs CBD oil, many people think the two are the same. In fact, they are two completely different CBD-infused products that often come in similar-looking containers. The main difference comes down to the carrier or base for the cannabidiol. During the extraction and distillation process, CBD drops can be made with an oil base or an alcohol base. Depending on which base the drops are made of, the product may have a different taste, potency and experience.

CBD Delivery Methods: CBD Tincture vs. Oil

The primary difference between CBD tincture vs CBD oil is that tinctures are a primarily alcohol-based product, while CBD oil is (unsurprisingly) oil-based. Typically, these drops are taken sublingually, or under the tongue. This allows the CBD to interact with the capillaries underneath the tongue and move into the bloodstream quickly. While this is the most common way to use CBD drops, many people choose to use the product directly on the skin for its anti-inflammatory properties or put it into a drink like coffee or a smoothie.

Whether someone is using a CBD tincture or CBD oil, there are some things to consider before purchasing. What are the other ingredients in your CBD drops? Can you trust the brand that you are purchasing from? Will this product have the desired effects based on the strain, terpenes, and consumption method? All of these are important factors. When choosing between CBD oil or CBD tinctures, learn the following key distinctions so you can make an informed decision.

What is a CBD Tincture?

A CBD tincture is an alcohol-based cannabidiol product. Because alcohol is more bioavailable, tinctures tend to be a more bioavailable product in general. Tinctures are typically made from strains of hemp that are especially high in CBD. When processed, the hemp product is distilled in about 60-70% alcohol. If you are only an occasional user of CBD, tinctures may be a better CBD delivery method option for you. Because they are alcohol-based, they have a longer shelf life compared to oil-based CBD products, which may go bad if left unused for too long.

What Goes into a CBD Tincture?

CBD tinctures contain alcohol, but there are often other ingredients like terpenes added as well. This assists in making the CBD more effective for certain purposes. Besides hemp and alcohol, tinctures often contain other oils or glycerin to improve the product’s effects. Generally, these other ingredients lend to a better-tasting CBD product, with less of an earthy essence compared to a CBD oil. While tinctures are very effective, they may have a slightly weaker potency compared to CBD oil. CBD tinctures are a great place to start for beginners to CBD. It gives users a sense of the benefits of Cannabidiol, with a better taste and lower price. Learn how to choose the best CBD tinctures.

How to Take CBD Tincture

There are a handful of different methods to take a CBD tincture. CBD tinctures typically are taken sublingually, or under one’s tongue, to get the most efficient rate of absorption. Additionally, you can add CBD tinctures to beverages and on top of most foods. Adding CBD tinctures to your water, energy drinks, and even protein shakes gives you an easy way to reap the health benefits of CBD, without tasting the earthiness of the tincture. Lastly, tinctures can be applied topically or added to your favorite lotion to aid with dry skin and give relief to sore muscles.

CBD Tincture Use

The introduction of CBD tinctures has gained momentum in the health and wellness world for many different reasons. Cannabidiol, or CBD, is a natural popular remedy used for many common ailments. From stress management to pain relief, and even as a luxurious addition to your spa routine, CBD tinctures are a must-have for your medicine cabinet. People across the country have turned to adding CBD into their daily routines and have found to have better sleep, less anxiety, and healthier skin.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD oil is one of the most popular ways to consume CBD products. While it is a bit less bioavailable compared to CBD tinctures, there are some benefits to an oil-based product. The oils are extracted from the stems, leaves, and seeds of the hemp plant and processed to become a highly effective extract. They tend to be slightly more potent than tinctures, because with the carrier oil comes more fatty acids and other nutrients. When comparing costs for CBD tincture vs. oil, the oil-based drops are often a bit more expensive.

What Goes into CBD Oil?

There are many different types of oil that can be a CBD carrier. One of the most popular is coconut oil because when refined, it has very little taste or scent – meaning the hemp and terpenes can really shine through. Other options include vegetable glycerin bases, hempseed oils, and more. CBD oil tends to have a slightly earthy taste and an oily texture when taken sublingually – people that find those qualities off-putting often opt for tinctures instead. However, in general distilling CBD in an oil base allows for better body absorption and improved efficiency. Those that are looking for the most potent form of CBD often opt for an oil. What are terpenes?

Noticeable Differences

The noticeable differences between these two types of CBD product come down to the experience of use. While they may have varying potency, flavor, and ingredients, CBD drops tend to have the same therapeutic effects. Some of the most noticeable physical differences include decreased inflammation and better sleep – but CBD has also been shown to help with numerous medical conditions like chronic pain, Crohn’s disease, epilepsy and more. Many people choose to take Cannabidiol to assist in mental health treatment, for conditions like anxiety, depression, and others. Whether you are using a CBD oil or a tincture, people can treat these conditions naturally and experience some serious relief.

How to Choose: CBD Tincture vs CBD Oil

Choosing the right CBD delivery method comes down to individual preference. A good way to decide whether a CBD oil or tinctures is the best option for you is to try both for yourself. Both products are great for easy dosage and consumption. If you are looking for a better tasting CBD product, tinctures may be a better option – because it has a less earthy flavor. Tinctures are also a great choice if you are looking for a longer-lasting product. CBD oils are a perfect option for someone looking for an extra potent CBD product, that may cost a bit more, but will likely have super transformative effects.

Typically, neither type of drop contains more than .03% THC (or Tetrahydrocannabinol), which is the psychoactive compound found in cannabis. So, while CBD may cause a calm feeling, you will not experience any sort of “high”. The best way to choose a good CBD is to make sure that you are purchasing from a legitimate brand, with a solid understanding of what is in the product. Learn more about how to choose the best CBD drops.

Choosing a Safe CBD

There are many different kinds of CBD on the market and not all are created equal. Unless the products are certified, there is a chance you are not getting what you think you are buying. Some brands may use poor quality carriers or synthetic cannabidiol, making the product essentially useless for its intended purposes. That is why it is extremely important to do some research before getting just any drops on the market. Having CBD products that come with a Certificate of Analysis ensures that you are getting exactly what you ordered, with no mystery ingredients.

Finding the Right CBD for You

Finding the right CBD for your needs can be a difficult decision. If you are deciding between CBD tincture vs. CBD oil, explore the options and shop CBD oils, CBD tinctures, CBD drops with Leafz. All of the CBD products from Leafz are third-party lab tested and come with a Certificate of Analysis, so they are guaranteed to be completely safe for adults.

If you are interested in learning more about other CBD products, read some of Leafz CBD resources to discover the benefits of CBD and the many amazing ways to incorporate it into your routine.

With ever-changing trends in the health and wellness world, we can be sure that CBD is here to stay. With the ability to ingest or apply CBD in many different forms, it makes it the perfect addition to your daily routine. Grab some different products from our store and find out which best suits your needs! Want to share the amazing benefits of CBD tinctures and oils? Give the gift of CBD to your friends and family, check out the best CBD gifts for every occasion.

Shop the Leafz CBD online store to have high-quality CBD products delivered straight to your home.

Jolly green oil cbd review

This Jolly Green Oil Review reveals the truth about this CBD oil company. Not all CBD is created equal. Read this before you buy Jolly Green Oil Products Welcome to our comprehensive Jolly Green Oil review. This article will cover all you need to know about this legal and popular hemp-based CBD company How many stars would you give Jolly Green Oil? Join the 25 people who've already contributed. Your experience matters.

Jolly Green Oil Review

Jolly Green Oil certainly evokes a fun, happy nature with their CBD edibles. Everything from chocolate covered pretzels to CBD popcorn and lollipops will bring out the kid in anyone. But looks can be deceiving, as rampant artificial flavors and colors lurk in these tasty treats. We’re willing to grant Jolly Green Oil the Safety Badge due to their current disclosure of independent laboratory results. But this exclusively CBD isolate company has a bit further to go to really drive home transparency. Letting us know where and how their CBD hemp is sourced and their extraction method is a great place to start.

Jolly Green Oil handcrafts their CBD oil products in small batches which they winterize. The winterization process involves soaking CBD extract in alcohol, then freezing it to separate the cannabidiol from other remaining plant products like chlorophyll, wax, etc. Winterization is thought to produce a more potent CBD oil with lower traces of terpenes. Because of the alcohol used, it’s imperative that any company winterizing their CBD oil provides comprehensive testing for residual solvents.

And Jolly Green Oil does a good job on the testing front. They have up-to-date, third-party test results for purity and contaminants including heavy metals available for most of their SKUs. We feel confident that their CBD products are safe, free of pesticides and solvents.

Jolly Green Oil exclusively uses CBD isolate in all their offerings. They specialize in CBD vape products which make up the bulk of their line. Their vape cartridges and pods come in two varieties: JGO and JGO+. The former features flavors like pink lemonade and watermelon bomb. Though we can’t be sure due to a lack of ingredients lists, it’s probably safe to assume these contain artificial flavors common in the CBD vape world. The JGO+ line has flavors based on terpenes with common names like OG Kush and Grand Daddy Purple. But again, we don’t know if these products are actually infused with terpenes due to a lack of ingredient disclosure.

Jolly Green Oil also sells CBD vape e-liquids in four flavors (all with artificial ingredients) and tinctures suspended in non-GMO-verified MCT oil for both humans and pets. They sell a third-party brand called Hempmetics on their website as well.

Their edible CBD line is extensive with bubblegum, popcorn, pretzels, candies, gummies, and lollipops. Due to an inordinate amount of artificial flavoring and colors, plus a lack of comprehensive ingredients lists for certain products, we’re not keen on the Jolly Green Oil edibles. They also use titanium dioxide in a few of these CBD edibles, and while this ingredient is thought to be safe by various agencies (there was actually a move to ban it completely in France), we don’t like it.

Echoing that sentiment, because Jolly Green Oil does not provide any information on their source material or extraction method, we won’t be able to award the Quality Badge in this case.

Bottom Line – Jolly Green Oil’s efforts are geared mostly toward the CBD vape customer, with a variety of vape products for sale. They’re on top of their testing, but have a long way to go to qualify for our other badges.

Jolly Green Oil Review: Still Making Quality CBD in 2021

Welcome to our comprehensive Jolly Green Oil review. This article will cover all you need to know about this legal and popular hemp-based CBD company operating in the United States.

We’ll check out all the JGO products featured here at CBDVapeJuice.net, including those from their premium Hempmetics range, and give you some tips on how to use them. We’ll round off by answering a couple of your questions about Jolly Green Oil’s CBD, and with a coupon code, so you can get a special discount on their products!

Who is JGO?

Jolly Green Oil is an American CBD company fully focussed on product quality. That’s why all their CBD products are hand-crafted and made in small batches. This extra love and care ensures that their oils, e-liquids and gummies have no imperfections or impurities, and that you get the same, excellent results from CBD every time.

JGO exclusively uses CBD-isolate extracts in their products. This type of extract only contains CBD, and nothing else from the hemp plant. Crucially, this means JGO products are THC-free, and that even the highest dosages present no risk of failing a drugs test. Furthermore, their products are nicotine-free, solvent-free, and don’t have any potentially harmful substances.

Is Jolly Green Oil legit?

Yes, JGO products are legit! Firstly, all of their products have less than 0.3% THC, a requirement for all hemp products sold in the US.

Secondly, every JGO product is lab-certified by an independent body. This is the true test of any quality CBD brand. Companies selling “snake oil” will always be exposed by third-party testing, which demands transparency on how products are manufactured.

JGO have no qualms about independent labs checking out their products. And they want you to know about it! You’ll find up-to-date reports for all their products available online, free of charge, which should put sceptical minds to rest.

What exactly is covered in a lab report? This varies depending on the laboratory. However, JGO uses Desert Valley Testing, who conduct a really thorough analysis.

They test for cannabinoid concentrations – this stage confirms the specified amount of CBD is present, and that the THC threshold is not breached. They also check for terpenes, the aroma molecules in hemp with some therapeutic properties. These are non-psychoactive compounds that determine whether a product lifts mood, boosts energy or promotes relaxation.

Desert Valley also scan for residual solvents. Some CBD companies still use solvent extraction rather than CO2 extraction, which leads to an impure product. However, we can tell from any report that JGO products do not contain butane, ethanol, propane or any other solvents. Hemp sometimes picks up heavy metals while growing – CO2 extraction ensures these are eliminated from the final hemp extract.

Jolly Green Oil review

Before we dive in, bear in mind that JGO and all hemp-derived CBD products are dietary supplements. JGO does not market CBD as a medicine, and you should not change your current treatment plan without consulting your doctor. CBD is not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any condition.

But CBD isn’t popular without good reason. Many users are indeed finding vape juices and tincture oils effective alternatives to prescription meds. What’s more, CBD doesn’t have any addictive effects, nor does it induce a cannabis-like psychoactive response.

CBD research is coming thick and fast, with studies showing the compound exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, anti-anxiety properties and reduces oxidative stress. The compound likely does much more that we haven’t even discovered yet, as we’re still in the early days of endocannabinoid system (ECS) research. Some suspect CBD could even become a future treatment for psychosis, depression and insomnia. Given the rapid emergence of CBD, it’s even more important that we get these studies soon.

Not everyone takes CBD products as a natural remedy for their illnesses. Research on hemp-derived CBD users has found that up to 40% of people take purely for supplemental purposes.

Now you have some background on the CBD compound, let’s explore the Jolly Green Oil CBD range, concentrating on how their products may help you.

Party Pack Gummies (1000mg)

These Jolly Green Oil Gummies are among the best value edibles that we stock at CBDVapeJuice.net. This is a high-strength product – 50mg of CBD is infused into each gummy, with 20 servings to a pack. Most will find one gummy easily strong enough, and some may prefer splitting these treats in half for a less potent 25mg dose. It’s entirely up to you!

The Party Pack contains a mixture of Peach Rings, Blue Raspberry Puffs, Gummy Worms, Sour Gummy Worms and Sour Patch Watermelon Slices. Although styled as a ‘party pack’, CBD is normally taken privately for personal reasons. That said, given CBD’s likely anti-anxiety effects and the strong nature of these edibles, there’s nothing to stop you using them at parties as a social lubricant. These gummies are a great way of getting you and your friends relaxed, without the intoxication and negative health effects of alcohol. And if you do wish to pair CBD with alcohol, that’s completely fine, too!

Taking edibles is a little different to other CBD products. With most, the effects take just a handful of minutes to show, so you can easily establish whether your initial dose was strong enough. With edibles, it’s not uncommon to be waiting an hour or longer for your dose to kick in. It’s important to resist the temptation – especially with high-strength edibles – to take a second dose soon after your first.

Wait at least two hours before making a decision. The slow onset of effects may be a downside, but edibles more than make up for it with an extended CBD experience that can last up to eight hours!

CBD Vape Cartridge (250mg, 625mg and 700mg)

Unlike edibles, CBD vaping delivers a much more instant experience, with effects that last for around three hours. And that’s exactly what you can expect from these JGO vape cartridges!

Cartridge vaping is convenient and simple. The CBD e-liquid comes ready-to-vape in the cartridge, and all you need to do is attach the 510-threaded cartridge to a corresponding 510-threaded battery. No maintenance required! Just ensure that your vape battery is fully charged so you can enjoy a full day of vaping. If you happen to run low, nearly all batteries have USB charging functionality anyway.

JGO vape cartridges are available in three different potencies: flavored 250mg and 625mg CBD-isolate cartridges, and a stronger 700mg CBD-isolate option infused with terpenes. Every vape juice is THC and nicotine-free, and does not have any vitamin E acetate, a substance linked to vaping illnesses. The 250mg cartridges offer a good introduction into CBD vaping, before moving up to the stronger 625mg e-liquid if you need stronger relief.

JGO 700mg terpene-infused cartridges

This cartridge may have a marijuana-like flavor and aroma, but that’s only because of the terpenes! We have six different 700mg cartridges from JGO – let’s check out the effects and experience provided by three of them.

OG Kush (Indica): Indica terpenes are linked to extra relaxation in the body and mind, and this OG Kush cartridge is no exception. The blend of soothing terpenes and high CBD dosage is fantastic for chilling out with, relieving stress, and tackling pain symptoms.

Super Lemon Haze (Sativa): Enjoy pungent, citrusy hits with Super Lemon Haze, a sativa cartridge from JGO. Sativas are associated with increased energy, reduced fatigue, improved mood and delightful cerebral effects. You’ll get all of that and more with this cartridge.

Sunset Sherbert (Hybrid): Balance out sativa and indica effects with Sunset Sherbert, a vape cartridge that’s both tasty and therapeutic. This product may help to enhance focus levels. CBD is noted for producing cognitive benefits, and is even better when mixed with the appropriate terpenes. Sunset Sherbert is an awesome cartridge for extended study sessions.

CBD E-Liquid/Tincture Oil (625mg)

This is a standalone e-liquid, but the same as what’s found in JGO’s vape cartridges. Buying vape juice in a bottle is popular with vape enthusiasts, who like to hone their experience. Perhaps this involves combining two e-liquids – maybe CBD and nicotine. Or maybe blending two flavors together gives the best hit. You could even boost this e-liquid by stirring in CBD-isolate crystals.

And you don’t even need to vape e-liquid at all. This product is just as effective when enjoyed as a tincture oil. Sublingual absorption is a healthier approach to CBD consumption than vaping, and the speed of delivery is only a little slower. You can also enjoy this JGO E-Liquid as a food ingredient, and it even works when added to drinks!

As you can see, you simply don’t get all these options with vape cartridges. If ultra-convenience isn’t a priority, and you don’t mind a little maintenance, you’ll be best-served purchasing e-liquid as it is.

Hempmetics Topical Salve (1000mg)

Enjoy topical relief with one of the most potent CBD salves on the market. This Hempmetics salve packs 1000mg of CBD-isolate extract into just 1oz. And JGO’s premium cream doesn’t just have CBD and hemp extract, but a smattering of cooling menthol crystals, soothing organic aloe juice and an array of beneficial essential oils.

These well-chosen ingredients work together, delivering meaningful relief from chronic pain, while protecting, nourishing and enhancing skin condition. High-strength topical products are an excellent choice, whether used individually, or when combined with Jolly Green Oil Gummies or any other JGO product.

The powerful anti-inflammatory properties of CBD and other extracts are ideal for easing arthritis symptoms. They’re also handy for tackling skin complaints, including acne. Research shows CBD has an unusual effect on acne symptoms, helpfully restoring production of sebum, a skin-based oil, to natural and healthy levels.

Hempmetics Patches (240mg)

Transdermal patches have long existed as a way of administering medicine, or even nicotine for people trying to quit smoking. Now, thanks to JGO and Hempmetics, it’s also possible to get your CBD dose via transdermal patches. These patches have a numbing effect when applied, thanks to a small amount of lidocaine, an anaesthetic.

Each patch contains 60mg of CBD, with four patches to a pack. With patches, the CBD is gradually released into the body over several hours, delivering effects most comparable to an edible. Patches are perfect if dealing with pain – you simply apply to the worst-affected area, and allow the CBD to interact with receptors that control pain perception. This targeted relief is often more effective than a CBD product that disperses cannabinoids all over the body.

Patches are a good option if you need consistent CBD relief, but want to be discreet about your use. As a method of relieving pain, patches are ideal for during the day, especially if you have a physical job and can’t risk feeling sleepy.

Jolly Green Oil coupon code!

We’re big fans of JGO at CBDVapeJuice.net, and want to share our love for these products. That’s why we’re offering you an exclusive discount on JGO products, just for checking out this blog post!

When checking out, please enter the Jolly Green Oil coupon code save10. We’ll automatically apply a 10% discount to your order. Just check before completing your order that it’s been successfully applied! And once you’ve experienced the Party Pack edibles, or one of JGO’s famous vape cartridges, please get back to us with a rating and review!

Jolly Green Oil Reviews

Bad business. I have been ordering from JGO gor about 3 years for my business Blossoms CBD in Texas.
I had stopped ordering due to shipment taking over a week to arrive and the gummies arriving melted, I couldn’t sell them.
I was denied a refund and was owed a $300 credit and decided to give them another chance after Michael, director is sales called numerous times and send alot of emails.
He said they had fixed their shipping problems and that their gummies had been redone and would not melt.
This last order took 3 weeks to arrive. It was missing 6 tinctures and some gummies. I called Michael and he said, o will have them shipped today. That was two weeks ago. Then he calls to try to get me to order some disposable vape pens, he can’t even deliver my order and wants me to buy more, he’s got no shame.
Worst thing this past week I spoke to another person on Tuesday and he said a manager would call me back right away, I’m still waiting. I made online contact and same lie,we’ll take care of the order, and nothing.
Jolly Green Oil is the worst CBD company I’ve dealt with since being in business.
They won’t deliver the order or refund the missing items payment.

Beware, if you order here get ready to be ripped off and lied to, find a good company to order from cause this one is a joke.

Lord jones cbd detox oil

AI-curated “Keytalk” honest beauty reviews : “instantly healing” and “excess sebum”. View similar products, product ingredients and more! Are Lord Jones's CBD gumdrops, tinctures, and skincare products worth the hype? Read on for our writer's 10 favorite products. Lord Jones Pore Detox CBD Face Oil ingredients explained: Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil, Coconut Alkanes, Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil, Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil, Squalane, Coco-Caprylate/Caprate, Cannabidiol (Cbd) From Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Achillea Millefolium Extract, Cananga Odorata (Ylang Ylang) Leaf Cell Extract, Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract, Citrus Aurantium Amara (Bitter Orange) Flower Oil, Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) Root Extract, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Extract, Melaleuca Viridiflora (Niaouli) Leaf Oil, Melia Azadirachta Seed Oil, Oryza Sativa (Rice) Bran Extract, Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract, Salix Alba (Willow) Bark Extract, Tanacetum Annuum (Blue Tansy) Flower Oil, Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) Root Extract, 4-Terpineol, Bisabolol, Betaine Salicylate, Tocopherol

Lord Jones Pore Detox CBD Face Oil

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What The Brand Says

A face oil designed for oily skin that visibly balances sebum and clears pores, leaving you with a smoother-, softer-, healthier-looking complexion.

Table of Contents

Among my friends, I’ve somehow become the de facto CBD expert. But until recently, I didn’t actually know that much about the hemp-derived ingredient aside from the fact that I liked using it. What I did know was that more often than not, I find myself recommending Lord Jones products, and they always seemed to get rave reviews.

I don’t remember the first time I heard about Lord Jones, but I know that once I did, I started seeing it everywhere . I initially got my hands on the body lotion, and I’ve been a fan of the California-based brand ever since. It started as a medical cannabis collective, but Lord Jones became one of the first brands to bring CBD into the mainstream, and celebs such as Busy Philipps, Sarah Paulson, and Olivia Wilde are fans. And when the ingredient exploded in popularity, the brand maintained its strict standards and commitment. “Lord Jones has forever been dedicated to providing best-in-class, high-quality CBD products that our consumers can trust from box to box, bottle to bottle,” says Summer Frein, the general manager overseeing Lord Jones. “Our mission has always been to normalize and destigmatize the plant, knowing its ability to change people’s lives.”

Now, I don’t want to overpromise, but if you haven’t tried CBD, specifically Lord Jones CBD, it just might be that: life-changing. Read on for everything to know about the brand, how its new skincare products are breaking the mold, and reviews of some of its most popular beauty and wellness essentials.


What Makes Lord Jones CBD Unique?

It makes sense that Lord Jones was at the forefront of the CBD movement when you look at the company’s history. “One thing that truly sets our brand apart is the fact that we began as a nonprofit collective providing members of the Hollywood community with safe access to medical cannabis before shifting our focus to CBD,” says Frein. “This experience working with members of our community inspires our product development process to this day.” And as CBD has skyrocketed in popularity, it’s become increasingly difficult to ensure the product you’re buying is high-quality. “The proliferation of CBD brands, along with the ever-changing FDA rules and regulations, has made the category incredibly difficult for consumers to navigate,” says Frein. “It’s important to look to brands who are dedicated to moving the industry forward through a focus on cannabinoid innovation.”

That’s where Lord Jones products are different—and why they’re so trusted in both the wellness and beauty industries. “Our best-in-class CBD products are third-party lab tested for heavy metals, pesticides, residual solvents, and microbial contaminants and are backed by specific batch analysis reports with COAs (certificates of analysis) that confirm that the product actually contains the amount of CBD it claims to,” explains Frein.

How Does CBD Work in Lord Jones Skincare Products?

Ultimately, it puts the quality of the formula first, no matter what the product is. “All of our skincare products have been formulated with the finest ingredients since our inception, as we want the formulas to stand on their own whether or not they contain CBD,” explains Frein. Luckily, it’s an ingredient they stand behind and has practical uses in skincare. “CBD is a natural fit within topical and facial skincare products due to its ability to calm and soothe,” she says.

It’s hard to believe that before a few years ago, CBD was nowhere to be found in mass retailers—let alone beauty retailers. “Twenty-eighteen was a major milestone for us when Sephora launched Lord Jones as its first-ever CBD brand,” Frein says. Since then, it’s added several new products to the mix, including its latest launch, the Pore Detox CBD Face Oil. And the testing remains just as rigorous. “Skincare innovation has been a focus for us with our Acid Mantle Repair CBD Moisturizer and Pore Detox CBD Face Oil recently undergoing clinical trials,” explains Frein. “For example, our Acid Mantle Repair CBD Moisturizer clinically reversed dry skin in just 30 minutes based on a 33-subject clinical trial. One-hundred percent of those with noticeable pores saw improvement after two weeks of using our Pore Detox CBD Face Oil based on a 31-subject clinical trial.”

Lord jones cbd detox oil

Jojoba is a drought resistant evergreen shrub native to South-western North America. It’s known and grown for jojoba oil, the golden yellow liquid coming from the seeds (about 50% of the weight of the seeds will be oil).

At first glance, it seems like your average emollient plant oil: it looks like an oil and it’s nourishing and moisturizing to the skin but if we dig a bit deeper, it turns out that jojoba oil is really special and unique: technically – or rather chemically – it’s not an oil but a wax ester (and calling it an oil is kind of sloppy).

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So what the heck is a wax ester and why is that important anyway? Well, to understand what a wax ester is, you first have to know that oils are chemically triglycerides: one glycerin + three fatty acids attached to it. The fatty acids attached to the glycerin vary and thus we have many kinds of oils, but they are all triglycerides. Mother Nature created triglycerides to be easily hydrolyzed (be broken down to a glycerin + 3 fatty acid molecules) and oxidized (the fatty acid is broken down into small parts) – this happens basically when we eat fats or oils and our body generates energy from it.

Mother Nature also created wax esters but for a totally different purpose. Chemically, a wax ester is a fatty acid + a fatty alcohol, one long molecule. Wax esters are on the outer surface of several plant leaves to give them environmental protection. 25-30% of human sebum is also wax esters to give us people environmental protection.

So being a wax ester results in a couple of unique properties: First, jojoba oil is extremely stable. Like crazy stable. Even if you heat it to 370 C (698 F) for 96 hours, it does not budge. (Many plant oils tend to go off pretty quickly). If you have some pure jojoba oil at home, you should be fine using it for years.

Second, jojoba oil is the most similar to human sebum (both being wax esters), and the two are completely miscible. Acne.org has this not fully proven theory that thanks to this, jojoba might be able to “trick” the skin into thinking it has already produced enough sebum, so it might have “skin balancing” properties for oily skin.

Third, jojoba oil moisturizes the skin through a unique dual action: on the one hand, it mixes with sebum and forms a thin, non-greasy, semi-occlusive layer; on the other hand, it absorbs into the skin through pores and hair follicles then diffuses into the intercellular spaces of the outer layer of the skin to make it soft and supple.

On balance, the point is this: in contrast to real plant oils, wax esters were designed by Mother Nature to stay on the surface and form a protective, moisturizing barrier and jojoba oil being a wax ester is uniquely excellent at doing that.

Coconut Alkanes is a volatile (something that does not absorb into the skin but evaporates from it), naturally derived vegetable alkane coming from renewable sources. It is a light, oily liquid that works as an emollient and gives a smooth skin feel.

It’s often combined with another emollient called Coco-Caprylate/Caprate and the two together can serve as a great replacement for some volatile silicones, like Cyclopentasiloxane.

A super common emollient that makes your skin feel nice and smooth. It comes from coconut oil and glycerin, it’s light-textured, clear, odorless and non-greasy. It’s a nice ingredient that just feels good on the skin, is super well tolerated by every skin type and easy to formulate with. No wonder it’s popular.

Sunflower does not need a big intro as you probably use it in the kitchen as cooking oil, or you munch on the seeds as a healthy snack or you adore its big, beautiful yellow flower during the summer – or you do all of these and probably even more. And by even more we mean putting it all over your face as sunflower oil is one of the most commonly used plant oils in skincare.

It’s a real oldie: expressed directly from the seeds, the oil is used not for hundreds but thousands of years. According to The National Sunflower Association, there is evidence that both the plant and its oil were used by American Indians in the area of Arizona and New Mexico about 3000 BC. Do the math: it’s more than 5000 years – definitely an oldie.

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Our intro did get pretty big after all (sorry for that), so let’s get to the point finally: sunflower oil – similar to other plant oils – is a great emollient that makes the skin smooth and nice and helps to keep it hydrated. It also protects the surface of the skin and enhances the damaged or irritated skin barrier. Leslie Bauman notes in Cosmetic Dermatology that one application of sunflower oil significantly speeds up the recovery of the skin barrier within an hour and sustains the results 5 hours after using it.

It’s also loaded with fatty acids (mostly linoleic (50-74%) and oleic (14-35%)). The unrefined version (be sure to use that on your skin!) is especially high in linoleic acid that is great even for acne-prone skin. Its comedogen index is 0, meaning that it’s pretty much an all skin-type oil.

Truth be told, there are many great plant oils and sunflower oil is definitely one of them.

Also-called: Avocado Oil, Persea Americana Oil | What-it-does: antioxidant, emollient | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0-3

The oil coming from the pulp of one of the most nutritious fruits in the world, the avocado. It’s loaded with the nourishing and moisturizing fatty acid, oleic (70%) and contains some others including palmitic (10%) and linoleic acid (8%). It also contains a bunch of minerals and vitamins A, E and D.

Avocado oil has extraordinary skin penetration abilities and can nourish different skin layers. It’s a very rich, highly moisturizing emollient oil that makes the skin smooth and nourished. Thanks to its vitamin E content it also has some antioxidant properties. As a high-oleic plant oil, it is recommended for dry skin.

It seems to us that squalane is in fashion and there is a reason for it. Chemically speaking, it is a saturated (no double bonds) hydrocarbon (a molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen), meaning that it’s a nice and stable oily liquid with a long shelf life.

It occurs naturally in certain fish and plant oils (e.g. olive), and in the sebum (the oily stuff our skin produces) of the human skin. As f.c. puts it in his awesome blog post, squalane’s main things are “emolliency, surface occlusion, and TEWL prevention all with extreme cosmetic elegance“. In other words, it’s a superb moisturizer that makes your skin nice and smooth, without being heavy or greasy.

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Another advantage of squalane is that it is pretty much compatible with all skin types and skin conditions. It is excellent for acne-prone skin and safe to use even if you have fungi-related skin issues, like seborrhea or fungal acne.

The unsaturated (with double bonds) and hence less stable version of Squalane is Squalene, you can read about it here >>

A light emollient ester (C8-10 fatty acids connected to C12-18 fatty alcohols) that absorbs quickly and leaves a dry but silky finish on the skin. In terms of skin feel, it is similar to Dicaprylyl Carbonate, another commonly used light emollient.

This ingredient name is not according to the INCI-standard. 🙁 What, why?!

We don’t have description for this ingredient yet.

We don’t have description for this ingredient yet.

Also-called: German Chamomile Flower Extract | What-it-does: soothing, antioxidant | Irritancy: 0 | Comedogenicity: 0

Chamomile probably needs no introduction as it’s one of the most widely used medicinal herbs. You probably drink it regularly as a nice, calming cup of tea and it’s also a regular on skincare ingredient lists.

Cosmetic companies use it mainly for its anti-inflammatory properties. It contains the terpenoids chamazulene and bisabolol both of which show great anti-inflammatory action in animal studies. On top of that chamomile also has some antioxidant activity (thanks to some other active ingredients called matricine, apigenin and luteolin).

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Though chamomile is usually a goodie for the skin, it’s also not uncommon to have an allergic reaction to it.

The essential oil coming from the flowers of bitter orange (which is the sister of the sweet orange we all know and eat). It contains several fragrance components including linalool (around 30%) and limonene (around 10%) and has a lovely sweet smell.

As it’s an essential oil with lots of fragrant components, be careful with it if your skin is sensitive.

Also-called: Licorice Root;Glycyrrhiza Glabra Root Extract | What-it-does: soothing, skin brightening

You might know licorice as a sweet treat from your childhood, but it’s actually a legume that grows around the Mediterranean Sea, the Middle East, central and southern Russia. It’s sweet and yellow and not only used for licorice all sorts but it’s also a skincare superstar thanks to two magic properties:

Nr. 1 magic property is that it has skin-lightening or to say it another way depigmenting properties. The most active part is called glabridin. The topical application (meaning when you put it on your face) of 0.5% glabridin was shown to inhibit UVB caused pigmentation of guinea pigs. Another study even suggested that licorice is more effective than the gold standard skin-lightening agent hydroquinone. All in all, licorice is considered to be one of the safest skin lightening agents with the fewest side effects.

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There is just one catch regarding glabridin and licorice: the amount of glabridin in commercial licorice extracts can vary a lot. We have seen extracts with only 4% glabridin as well as 40% glabridin. The latter one is a very-very expensive ingredient, so if you are after the depigmenting properties try to choose a product that boasts its high-quality licorice extract.

Nr. 2 magic property is that licorice is a potent anti-inflammatory. Glabridin has also some soothing properties but the main active anti-inflammatory component is glycyrrhizin. It’s used to treat several skin diseases that are connected to inflammation including atopic dermatitis, rosacea or eczema.

Oh, and one more thing: glabridin seems to be also an antioxidant, which is just one more reason to be happy about licorice root extract on an ingredient list.

Bottom line: Licorice is a great skincare ingredient with significant depigmenting, anti-inflammatory and even some antioxidant properties. Be happy if it’s on the ingredient list. 🙂

When it comes to sunflower and skincare, the seed oil is the common and well-known one. But according to manufacturer info, the seed extract also contains a bunch of skin goodies, including anti-inflammatory minerals, moisturizing and soothing amino acids, sugars and proteins as well as antioxidant polyphenol derivatives.

We don’t have description for this ingredient yet.

We don’t have description for this ingredient yet.

We don’t have description for this ingredient yet.

The extract coming from the lovely herb, rosemary. It contains lots of chemicals, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, and diterpenes. Its main active is rosmarinic acid, a potent antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. It has also anti-bacterial, astringent and toning properties.

The leaves contain a small amount of essential oil (1-2%) with fragrant components, so if you are allergic to fragrance, it might be better to avoid it.

The extract coming from the bark of the White Willow, a big (25 m/80 ft.) tree that likes to live on riverbanks. It’s famous for containing anti-inflammatory natural salicylates (this powder, for example, is standardized to contain 53-65%), a close chemical relative to famous exfoliant salicylic acid.

Thanks to its salicin content, willow bark is often touted as a natural alternative to salicylic acid, though it’s quite questionable how effective it is as a chemical exfoliant in the tiny amounts used in cosmetics. Apart from soothing salicin, it also contains flavonoids and phenolic acids that give willow bark tonic, astringent, and antiseptic properties.

We don’t have description for this ingredient yet.

The extract coming from ginger, the lovely spice that we all know from the kitchen. It is also a medicinal plant used both in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine for pretty much everything you can imagine (muscular pain, sore throat, nausea, fever or cramps, just to give a few examples).

As for ginger and skincare, the root extract contains the biologically active component called gingerol that has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Combined with Bisabolol, the duo works synergistically to sooth the skin and take down redness.

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Other than that, ginger also contains moisturizing polysaccharides, amino acids, and sugars, and it is also quite well known to increase blood circulation and have a toning effect.

Last but not least, Ginger also has some volatile, essential oil compounds (1-3%). Those are mostly present in ginger oil, but small amounts might be in the extract as well (around 0.5% based on manufacturer info).

We don’t have description for this ingredient yet.

It’s one of the active parts of Chamomile that contains about 30% of bisabolol. It’s a clear oily fluid that is used in skincare as a nice anti-inflammatory and soothing ingredient.

The combination of famous exfoliant, salicylic acid and gentle moisturizer, betaine. It counts as a mild exfoliant and natural moisturizer, skin smoothing agent.

You usually find this guy in K-Beauty products, as due to regulations, pure salicylic acid can be used only in tiny amounts in South-Korean formulations. A generally accepted ballpark number is that betaine salicylate is twice as gentle as salicylic acid, i.e. a 4% betaine salicylate product is similar to a 2% salicylic acid one.

How to use cbd oil for copd

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with both a pro-inflammatory and a T-helper 1 (Th1) immune response. It was hypothesized that cannabis oil extract can alleviate COPD symptoms by eliciting an anti-inflammatory Th2 immune response. Accordingly, the effects of cannabis oil extract on the expression of 84 Th2 and related immune response genes in human small airways epithelial cells (HSAEpC) were investigated. HSAEpC from a single donor were treated with three dilutions of a standardized cannabis oil extract (1:400, 1:800 and 1:1600) along with a solvent control (0.25% [2.5 ul/ml] ethanol) for 24 h. There were four replicates per treatment dilution, and six for the control. RNA isolated from cells were employed in pathway-focused quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) microarray assays. The extract induced significant (P < 0.05) changes in expression of 37 tested genes. Six genes (CSF2, IL1RL1, IL4, IL13RA2, IL17A and PPARG) were up-regulated at all three dilutions. Another two (CCL22 and TSLP) were up-regulated while six (CLCA1, CMA1, EPX, LTB4R, MAF and PMCH) were down-regulated at the 1:400 and 1:800 dilutions. The relationship of differentially-expressed genes of interest to biologic pathways was explored using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). This exploratory investigation indicates that cannabis oil extract may affect expression of specific airway epithelial cell genes that could modulate pro-inflammatory or Th1 processes in COPD. These results provide a basis for further investigations and have prompted in vivo studies of the effects of cannabis oil extract on pulmonary function. NONE (all in vitro experiments). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the most common respiratory order in the world. CBD has the potential to improve the lives of those suffering. Read how.

Effects of cannabis oil extract on immune response gene expression in human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEpC): implications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with both a pro-inflammatory and a T-helper 1 (Th1) immune response. It was hypothesized that cannabis oil extract can alleviate COPD symptoms by eliciting an anti-inflammatory Th2 immune response. Accordingly, the effects of cannabis oil extract on the expression of 84 Th2 and related immune response genes in human small airways epithelial cells (HSAEpC) were investigated.


HSAEpC from a single donor were treated with three dilutions of a standardized cannabis oil extract (1:400, 1:800 and 1:1600) along with a solvent control (0.25% [2.5 ul/ml] ethanol) for 24 h. There were four replicates per treatment dilution, and six for the control. RNA isolated from cells were employed in pathway-focused quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) microarray assays.



This exploratory investigation indicates that cannabis oil extract may affect expression of specific airway epithelial cell genes that could modulate pro-inflammatory or Th1 processes in COPD. These results provide a basis for further investigations and have prompted in vivo studies of the effects of cannabis oil extract on pulmonary function.

Trial registration

NONE (all in vitro experiments).


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory ailment characterized by airway inflammation and irreversible obstruction, resulting in breathing difficulty, mucus production and coughing/wheezing, among other symptoms. As with other diseases of aging, COPD has been increasing in the global population; by 2012, COPD had become the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is projected to become the 3rd leading cause of death in 2020 (Ferkol and Schraufnagel 2014; Gold Reports 2018). COPD and asthma, a recurring but reversible respiratory disease, share a number of common airway obstruction and inflammation symptoms. In fact, there are two competing hypotheses (termed the British hypothesis and the Dutch hypothesis) relating to the pathophysiology of these diseases (Ghebre et al. 2015). These differences in scientific consensus are addressed in part through an overlapping condition called asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, or ACOS (Gold Reports 2018; Allinson and Wedzicha 2017; Hines and Peebles 2017). ACOS provides a rationale for subsets of COPD patients with asthma-like features and vice versa (Christenson et al. 2015). That said, as distinct diseases, COPD and asthma appear to be fundamentally different from an immunological standpoint: In asthma, allergens trigger an antibody-mediated immune response via the actions of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines such as interleukins IL-5, IL-13, IL-25 and IL-33, as well as certain Th2-related chemotactic factors. Whereas, in COPD the cumulative effects of cigarette smoke and other chemical irritants result in a pro-inflammatory cell-mediated immune response facilitated by cytokines such as IL-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and a variety of T helper 1 (Th1) related chemotactic factors (Barnes 2016, 2009; Schuijs et al. 2013; Barnes 2017). While there is, to date, no cure for COPD, there are various standard treatment drugs available, notably, bronchodilators and corticosteroids (Gold Reports 2018; Allinson and Wedzicha 2017; Hines and Peebles 2017; Rosenberg and Kalhan 2017). However, such treatments have variable effectiveness and often have potentially serious side effects. There have been both anecdotal reports (e.g., on the internet) and scientific studies of the use of orally-administered cannabis oil extract or other cannabinoids derived from the leaves of the marijuana plant, Cannabis sativa, to alleviate symptoms of COPD (Pickering et al. 2011). Cannabis oil extract is a complex mixture of substances with potential pharmacological properties (Elsohly and Slade 2005; Amin and Ali 2019). However, certain components of cannabis oil extract, such as cannabidiol, are known to have anti-inflammatory properties (Cabral et al. 2015; Klein 2005). Cannabidiol and other phytocannabinoids, such as 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, were shown to inhibit pro-inflammatory and Th1 cytokines in vitro and in in vivo models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced lung injury, elicit an anti-inflammatory and Th2 immune response and potentially restore a Th1/Th2 balance in vitro, and shift the immune response profile from Th1 to Th2 in a murine model of diabetes (Petrosino et al. 2018; Ribeiro et al. 2012, 2015; Yuan et al. 2002; Weiss et al. 2006). As COPD represents a respiratory disease with a pro-inflammatory and Th1 immune response profile, the purpose of the present exploratory study was to determine if cannabis oil extract could up-regulate the in vitro expression of Th2, anti-inflammatory and related immune response genes in human small airways epithelial cells (HSAEpC). HSAEpC cells were selected as the model in vitro cell culture system for these studies in part because of the role of airway epithelial cells in respiratory system immune responses (Gras et al. 2013; Hallstrand et al. 2014; Hirota and Knight 2012; Lloyd and Saglani 2015). COPD can adversely affect immune response, host defense, cell and tissue repair and lung function in airway epithelial cells (De Rose et al. 2018). Accordingly, cannabis oil extract was tested for its effects on the expression of 84 respiratory immune response-related genes in HSAEpC using pathway-focused polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array technology. This pathway-focused array was composed of genes encoding Th2 cytokines and chemokines, cytokine and chemokine receptors, transcription factors, immune cell molecules and related proteins. Bioinformatics software was used to analyze the gene expression profiling data generated from these experiments.

Materials and methods

Cell culture

Human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEpC) were purchased from PromoCell (catalog number C-12642, Heidelberg, Germany). The certificate of analysis showed that the cells originated from the distal respiratory tract of a Caucasian female, age 65, frozen in passage two. (Cells were isolated in accordance with an approved tissue donation program). Each cell suspension was thawed, and cells were cultured in small airway epithelial cell growth medium (PromoCell C-21070) supplemented with growth medium supplement mix (PromoCell C-39175). Cells were grown in T-flasks at 37 C in a 5% CO2 incubator.

Cannabis sativa oil extract

The cannabis oil extract employed in these experiments was kindly provided by F. Ferri, NCM Biotech, Newport, RI, USA. This extract, a proprietary formulation covered under US Patent 9,199,960, contained approximately 95 mg/ml of total cannabinoids in ethanol. This was composed of a mixture of about 55 mg/ml of cannabidiol plus cannabidiolic acid and about 40 mg/ml of tetrahydrocannabinol plus tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. The preparation did not contain cannabinol. An analysis for terpenes or flavonoids was not conducted; the former but not the latter was likely present in the preparation. The stock solution was diluted 1:100 in ethanol and stored at 4 C. This preparation was further diluted 1:100 into cell culture media and tested for cytotoxic effects against primary HSAEpC cells in vitro. It was found that stock extract dilutions of 1:400 and higher were not cytotoxic. Ethanol (non-cytotoxic at a 0.25% [2.5 ul/ml] final concentration) was the negative control. Neither ethanol alone nor the combination of extract in ethanol showed any cytotoxic effects at a 1:400 dilution in cell culture media. Accordingly, 1:400, 1:800 and 1:1600 stock extract dilutions (corresponding to final concentrations of 1:40,000, 1:80,000 and 1:160,000, or about 2.4, 1.2 and 0.6 μg/ml of total cannabinoids in cell culture media) were selected for further testing.

Treatment of cells with cannabis oil extract

HSAEpC were seeded in 6-well cell culture plates at a density of 200,000 cells per well. After overnight adhesion, cells were treated for 24 h with media containing cannabis oil extract (1:400, 1:800 and 1:1600 dilutions). Negative control cells were treated with an equivalent volume of ethanol or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (1:400 dilution for a 0.25% final concentration). Each treatment dilution had four replicates, whereas control conditions (ethanol and PBS) had 6 replicates.

RNA extraction and reverse transcription

After 24 h of exposure to cannabis oil extract, cells were washed with PBS, collected in Trizol (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) and total mRNA was extracted following manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, samples were incubated for 5 min at room temperature and 200 ul of chloroform (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO) was added to 1 ml of Trizol. The aqueous phase containing RNAs was separated by centrifugation at 12,000 g for 15 min and transferred in a new tube. RNA was subsequently precipitated by adding 500 ul of isopropanol (Sigma-Aldrich) for 10 min followed by centrifugation for 10 min at 12,000 g. Pellets containing RNAs were washed three times in 75% ethanol and resuspended in 15–40 ul of nuclease-free water.

After the yield of RNA extraction was quantified using a Nanodrop (Thermo Fisher Scientific), complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized from 250 ng of RNA using the reverse transcription (RT2) First Strand kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) following the manufacturer’s instructions.

Pathway-focused quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays

In order to identify respiratory-related Th2 and associated immune response genes whose expression could be altered by the cannabis oil extract treatment, RT 2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays were used according to the manufacturer instructions (Qiagen, catalog number PAHS 067Z, product number 330231). Briefly, this assay in 384 well plate format contains primers for 84 genes of interest (GOIs) and 4 housekeeping genes in 4 replicates. A listing and description of the Th2 cytokine/chemokine and related immune response genes in this PCR array are shown in the accompanying Additional file 1: Table S1. PCR mixes including SYBR Green dye and 0.17 ul of cDNA were added to the plate wells and the PCR reaction was performed following the manufacturer’s instructions using an Applied Biosystems® ViiA™ 7 Real-Time PCR System (Thermo Fisher Scientific).

Data, statistical and bioinformatics analyses

Quantitative PCR results were analyzed by the delta cycle threshold (Ct) method, with the 0.25% ethanol treated cells as a control, using the Data Resources Center (www.Qiagen.com). Genes with Ct values > = 35 were excluded from this analysis, and genes with Ct values > 32 were considered low expression. Fold changes (2^(− Delta Ct)) were determined as the normalized gene expression (2^(− Delta Ct)) in the cannabis extract treated sample divided by the normalized gene expression (2^(− Delta Ct)) in the control sample (ethanol treated cells). Student’s t-test was used to determine p-values between control group (ethanol) and each experimental group (cannabis oil extract). Genes were regarded as up-regulated or down-regulated if their extract treatment fold changes were > 2.0 or < 0.5 relative to ethanol controls and were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The same analysis was performed to compare the results of the 0.25% ethanol treated cells with that of the saline control cells.

Further evaluation of GOIs was accomplished using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery or DAVID program (Huang et al. 2009a, b). This software tool was selected for its ability to analyze biological relationships among a list of GOIs, including an assessment of gene expression in specific Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways (Ogata et al. 1999). The Benjamini-Hochberg statistic was employed to control the false discovery rate while conducting multiple comparisons of the data (Huang et al. 2009a, b). Results from the DAVID analysis was coupled with reviews of the scientific literature regarding the prominent GOIs identified.


Gene regulation by cannabis oil extract

Tables 1 and 2 show qPCR fold regulation data for individual genes whose expression was significantly (P < 0.05) up-regulated or down-regulated, respectively, by any of the three cannabis oil extract dilutions (1:400, 1:800 and 1:1600) at 24 h. Overall, of the 84 analyzed genes, 37 (16 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated) were affected by one or more cannabis oil extract dilutions. Treatment with the 1:400 dilution resulted in 15 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated genes, while the 1:800 dilution treatment yielded nine up-regulated and seven down-regulated genes. Six genes (CSF2, IL1RL1, IL4, IL13RA2, IL17A and PPARG) were up-regulated by all three extract dilutions, with fold changes ranging from three to over 180 (Table 1 and Fig. 1). There also were two genes (CCL22 and TSLP) that were up-regulated and six genes (CLCA1, CMA1, EPX, LTB4R, MAF and PMCH) that were down-regulated at both the 1:400 and 1:800 dilutions. Fold changes for the six down-regulated genes ranged between 0.45 and < 0.04 (Table 2 and Fig. 2). Of the 47 genes that were neither up- or down-regulated, 36 showed undetectable expression in both treatment and control samples, based on Ct values > 35. No data were obtained for one of the 84 genes, IL18, because of a technical error. The 1:800 dilution of cannabis oil extract was tested two additional times under slightly modified conditions, each with its own negative control. This was done to confirm and extend the initial observations. Results were similar to that of 1:800 dilution from the primary experiment (data not shown). Finally, the ethanol control was compared to the PBS control to determine if 0.25% ethanol had an effect on gene expression. The average fold change of the 84 genes tested was 0.89, and none were significantly up-regulated. Only one gene (IL17A) was significantly down-regulated (fold change = 0.4). Interestingly, IL17A was significantly up-regulated at all three extract dilutions.

Table 1 Up-regulated genes of interest (GOIs) after exposure of HSAEpC to various dilutions of cannabis oil extract for 24 h

Table 2 Down-regulated GOIs after exposure of HSAEpC to various dilutions of cannabis oil extract for 24 h

Genes of interest (GOIs) up-regulated by cannabis oil extract at all three test dilutions (dose response experiment). HSAEpC were exposed to each of three dilutions of cannabis oil extract in ethanol for 24 h. Each fold change result is based on four cannabis oil extract treatment replicates and six control replicates. Legend: Black, 1:400 dilution; Grey, 1:800 dilution; Horizontal Stripes, 1:1600 dilution

GOIs down-regulated by cannabis oil extract at the 1:400 and 1:800 test dilutions (dose response experiment). HSAEpC were exposed to each of three dilutions of cannabis oil extract in ethanol for 24 h. Each fold change result is based on four cannabis oil extract treatment replicates and six control replicates. There were no down-regulated genes at the 1:1600 dilution. Legend: Black, 1:400 dilution; Grey, 1:800 dilution

Use of the DAVID bioinformatics program to identify specific respiratory disease-related GOIs

In order to evaluate the biological importance of the gene expression data, the list of 35 up- and down-regulated GOIs from the 1:400 dilution treatment were further analyzed using bioinformatics software, specifically, the DAVID program. The 35 GOIs were analyzed with the Functional Annotation Tool of DAVID using the full Homo sapiens genome as the baseline or background control. The summarized results of this analysis, yielding a total of 33 GOIs, are shown in Table 3. The functional categories and pathways selected were based on both the numbers of GOIs within each category plus low (i.e., highly statistically significant) p-values and Benjamini-Hochberg correction values generated by the use of the Functional Analysis Tool. The disease component yielded 10, 22 and 17 GOIs involved in COPD, asthma and the combination category of asthma/bronchiolitis/viral (especially respiratory syncytial virus) infections, respectively. Three major functional categories were identified by DAVID enrichment analysis: Signal genes (22), cytokine genes (14), and inflammatory response genes (4). DAVID’s gene ontogeny enrichment analysis program further identified 15 and eight genes coding for gene products involved in the immune response and positive regulation of the inflammatory response, respectively. The gene ontogeny enrichment analysis for molecular functions program within DAVID identified 10 genes whose products are molecules with cytokine activity and five genes encoding molecules with cytokine receptor activity. With respect to cellular components, there were 19 and 12 GOIs, respectively, that encoded extracellular space- or extracellular region-related molecules. Additional analyses of the 35 genes using the DAVID program identified three KEGG pathways of interest. Eleven GOIs were identified in the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction KEGG pathway. A schematic picture of how the KEGG cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction GOIs are related can be visualized at https://david.ncifcrf.gov/kegg.jsp?path=hsa04060$Cytokine-cytokine%20receptor%20interaction&termId=550028747&source=kegg. Ten regulated genes were identified in the Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway.

The same bioinformatics analyses were applied specifically to the list of eight genes up-regulated by either all three dilutions or by two of three dilutions of cannabis oil extract (Table 4). Functional analysis of disease components yielded all eight GOIs in the respiratory disease category (asthma and/or bronchiolitis and/or viral infections), with two genes (IL4 and IL13RA2) specifically in the COPD/asthma category. Five GOIs (CCL22, CSF2, IL4, IL17RL1 and TSLP) were in the cytokine functional category. All GOIs except PPARG were in the signal functional category. Biological process analysis identified five GOIs (CCL22, CSF2, IL1RL1, IL4 and IL17A) with activity in the immune response category. CSF2 and IL17 were identified as positive regulators of IL-23 production, while IL4 and PPARG were identified as negative regulators of the acute inflammatory response. There were six extracellular space cell component GOIs (all but IL1RL1 and PPARG). Molecular function analysis identified CSF2, IL4, IL17A and TSLP as cytokine activity GOIs. These four were the same GOIs in the KEGG pathway for cytokine and cytokine receptor interactions. Also, there were four gene products (CSF2, IL4, IL13RA2 and TSLP) involved in the KEGG pathway for JAK-STAT signaling. Bioinformatics analysis of the six down-regulated GOIs using DAVID did not reveal common functions or KEGG pathways. However, this does not lessen the potential relevance of the individual down-regulated GOIs to the treatment of COPD.


Experimental design considerations

These experiments were designed to determine if cannabis oil extract could in fact affect immune response gene expression in a human primary lung epithelial cell model that might be relevant to the treatment of COPD. It is acknowledged that the experimental protocols employed were exploratory in nature. Consequently, the results of this study have to be considered preliminary for a variety of reasons. These reasons include the HSAEpC being from a single individual, the time and resource constraints involved in performing these experiments, and the composition of the cannabis oil extract. That said, these results have value as a confirmation and extension of prior studies characterizing the anti-inflammatory and immune response-modifying properties of cannabinoids (Cabral et al. 2015; Klein 2005; Petrosino et al. 2018; Ribeiro et al. 2012, 2015; Yuan et al. 2002; Weiss et al. 2006). Moreover, the methodologies employed in the present study (gene expression profiling and pathway analysis) were analogous to those used in a study of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol in a multiple sclerosis model system (Kozela et al. 2016). Accordingly, these results warrant further in vitro and in vivo investigations with respect to the use of cannabis oil extract in treating COPD. In particular, these results served as the basis for testing of this extract in an animal model of pulmonary function (J. Osborn, University of Kentucky, personal communication).

DAVID bioinformatics analysis summary

Treatment of HSAEpC cells with cannabis oil extract markedly altered expression of 37 immune response and related genes out of 84 tested after 24 h of treatment. Some of these genes are known in the literature to be associated with respiratory diseases such as COPD. Bioinformatics analysis using the DAVID program was helpful in elucidating groups of genes with related biological activities. For example, 11 GOIs were part of the same KEGG pathway for cytokine and cytokine receptor interactions. This pathway is important in the early recognition and response phases of both innate and adaptive immunity (Arakelyan et al. 2017; Gardy et al. 2009). Furthermore, out of 26 respiratory disease-related GOIs, there were 10 GOIs specifically related to COPD. This bioinformatics analysis was coupled with literature evaluations in order to highlight the most relevant of these genes. The logical starting point for this was the eight GOIs that were up-regulated at two or three test dilutions (Tables 1 and 4), along with the six GOIs that were down-regulated at two test dilutions (Table 2).

Up-regulated GOIs

One prominent up-regulated GOI is IL4, which encodes interleukin IL-4, a known Th2 cytokine (Barczyk et al. 2006; Borish and Steinke 2003; May and Fung 2015; Röcken et al. 1996). There is already a body of research showing that increased IL-4 production can exacerbate eosinophilia and allergen-induced asthma, at least in those instances where the disease is Th2-driven. Conversely, IL-4 could modulate COPD pathophysiology in cases where COPD can be identified as a Th1-mediated inflammatory disease (Barnes 2016; Cornwell et al. 2010; Cosio et al. 2009). In one patient study, COPD severity was correlated with lower levels of IL-4, while higher IL-4 levels contributed to wound repair in the lung epithelium (Perotin et al. 2014). IL-4 also is a signaling molecule in the JAK-STAT signaling pathway (David et al. 2001). By binding to its cell surface receptor, a cytokine such as IL-4 causes receptor dimerization, mediating a signaling process involving Janus kinase phosphorylation and the subsequent phosphorylation and dimerization of STAT proteins. The activated STAT proteins in turn induce the transcription and expression of a variety of genes involved with promoting or maintaining immune responses (Yew-Booth et al. 2015). IL13RA2, which encodes IL-13 receptor alpha 2, also was up-regulated. This receptor has more complicated regulatory activities that can involve IL-4, IL-13 and their related receptors (Andrews et al. 2013, 2009; Chomarat and Banchereau 1998). In fact, while IL4 and IL13RA2 were up-regulated, IL4R (encoding IL-4 receptor) and IL13RA1 (encoding IL-13 receptor alpha 1) were downregulated at the 1:400 sample dilution. These results suggest that, despite cannabis oil extract containing a mixture of cannabinoid compounds, it was selectively regulating Th2 cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression. The activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway via IL-4 or other upregulated GOIs may also promote lung epithelial cell migration and repair (Bansal et al. 2012; Crosby and Waters 2010; Kida et al. 2008). Additionally, IL-13 receptor alpha 2 has been found to inhibit the detrimental tissue remodeling induced by IL-13 in murine models of both lung inflammation and eosinophilic esophagitis, a chronic inflammation of the esophagus (Zheng et al. 2008; Zuo et al. 2010).

Both IL4 and PPARG, which encodes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), were identified through pathway analysis as the two GOIs whose gene products act as negative regulators of acute inflammation. PPAR-gamma is a nuclear hormone receptor with known anti-inflammatory activities (Nencioni et al. 2003; Ricote et al. 1998). There is a substantial body of literature showing that PPAR-gamma (which was up-regulated by all three cannabis oil extract dilutions) can have beneficial effects in the therapy of COPD, and more specifically, that airway epithelial cells are affected by PPAR-gamma (Belvisi and Mitchell 2009; Morissette et al. 2015; Solleti et al. 2015). PPAR-gamma was capable of both reducing cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and protecting against Haemophilus influenzae-induced symptom exacerbations in a mouse model of COPD (Morissette et al. 2015; Solleti et al. 2015).

The gene with the highest fold changes at all three sample dilutions was IL1RL1, which encodes IL-1 receptor-like 1 (also known as ST2). This protein is present in lung mucosa, including airway epithelial cells, and has a critical role in the Th2-mediated immune response (Coyle et al. 1999; Traister et al. 2015; Zhao and Zhao 2015). The observed levels of IL1RL1 up-regulation by all three cannabis oil extract dilutions may make this gene a suitable biomarker for further in vitro and in vivo studies.

CCL22, CCL24 and CCL26 were three chemokine genes up-regulated by cannabis oil extract. They encode chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 22, 24 and 26, respectively. While within the limits of the qPCR detection threshold, their basal expressions in PBS and ethanol controls were low, especially for CCL24, which led to a high fold change. CCL22 was the only chemokine gene of the three that was up-regulated at both the 1:400 and 1:800 dilutions. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 has been described as both a Th2-attracting and homeostatic chemokine (Ying et al. 2008; Zlotnik and Yoshie 2012). Macrophage CCL22 gene expression in COPD has been the subject of several studies. CCL22 up-regulation has been found in sputum macrophages from COPD patients (Frankenberger et al. 2011). Eapen et al. observed a reduction in M2 (Th2) macrophages and an increase in M1 (Th1, pro-inflammatory) macrophages in the small airway walls of smokers and COPD patients (Eapen et al. 2017). However, they also reported that CCL22, along with Th2-related genes IL4, IL10 and IL13 were up-regulated in bronchiolar lavage fluid from COPD patients. In the same study, mRNA levels of CCL22 was increased in the lungs of mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke relative to normal controls. The authors noted that these chemokines and cytokines were characteristic of a Th2 (or for macrophages, M2) immune response.

Another GOI up-regulated by cannabis oil extract was TSLP, which encodes thymic stromal lymphopoietin. TSLP protein is known to be expressed in lung epithelial cells, and is associated with the Th2 immune response, including the downstream production of Th2 cytokines and chemokines such as IL-4 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 (Fang et al. 2010; He and Geha 2010; Redhu and Gounni 2012). Also, TSLP protein, in conjunction with Th2 cytokine IL-13, was capable of increasing airway epithelial cell proliferation as well as cell repair after mechanical injury (Semlali et al. 2010).

Two up-regulated genes, CSF2 and IL17A, were identified in pathway analysis as positive regulators of IL-23 production. IL-23 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the cell-mediated immune response (Oppmann et al. 2000). This cytokine has been described as heterodimeric, composed of two subunits, IL-23A and IL-12B. Neither IL23 itself or IL23A were part of the gene array, but the IL12B gene, encoding interleukin 12B (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 2, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 2, p40) was up-regulated at the 1:400 dilution. IL17A (alternatively, IL17) encodes cytokine IL-17A, which, like IL-23, plays a role in inflammation (Chen and Kolls 2017). Increased production of IL-17A can occur in both asthma and COPD, and may contribute to COPD pathophysiology (Alcorn et al. 2010; Chang et al. 2014). However, IL-17A also functions in host defense against microbial pathogens (Aujla et al. 2007; Tsai et al. 2013). Perhaps a more interesting finding was that certain T-cell populations in asthma patients can produce both IL-17A and IL-4, and such cells appear to be a combination of Th17 (an immune response involving IL-17 and separate from Th1 and Th2) and Th2 (Cosmi et al. 2010).

CSF2 (alternatively, GMCSF), the gene with the second highest fold change after IL1RL1, encodes colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage), or GM-CSF. This protein, a member of the hematopoetins family of cytokines, functions in white blood cell proliferation, migration and differentiation processes (Francisco-Cruz et al. 2014; Metcalf 2008). While GM-CSF was overexpressed in submucosal and airway smooth muscle cells of both asthma and COPD patients, elevated GM-CSF expression was linked to disease severity only in asthma (Saha et al. 2009). Furthermore, the production of GM-CSF in airways epithelial cells can be induced by IL-17A, possibly with respect to protection from microbial infections (Ponce-Gallegos et al. 2017).

Down-regulated GOIs

Pathway analysis of the six genes of interest that were significantly down-regulated by the 1:400 and 1:800 dilutions of cannabis oil extract (CLCA1, CMA1, EPX, LTB4R, MAF and PMCH) did not reveal common biological functions. That said, two of the down-regulated GOIs, CLCA1 and CMA1, appear to be highly relevant to the treatment of COPD with respect to mucus overproduction or hypersecretion. CLCA1 encodes chloride channel accessory 1, whose expression or up-regulation has been related to mucus overproduction as well as airway hyperreactivity in COPD (Hauber et al. 2005; Iwashita et al. 2012; Sala-Rabanal et al. 2015; Wang et al. 2007). The feasibility of inhibiting mucin production genes as a viable approach to treating COPD has been postulated (Ha and Rogers 2016). Accordingly, the use of cannabis oil extract to inhibit the expression of mucin production genes such as CLCA1 could help in controlling airway mucus hypersecretion. CMA1 encodes mast cell chymase 1, a serine proteinase. Chymase can stimulate mucin secretion from lung epithelial cells, and is known to contribute to the mucus hypersecretion process in patients with COPD (He and Zheng 2004). Also, mast cell chymase and other serine proteases are known to promote inflammation through degradation of the extracellular matrix (de Garavilla et al. 2005). An inhibitor of these proteases had anti-inflammatory effects that could be related to the treatment of COPD. The down-regulation of CMA1 would therefore potentially decrease both mucus hypersecretion and inflammation.

Two other GOIs down-regulated by cannabis oil extract that may have relevance to COPD were LTB4R (alternatively, BLT1 or LTB4R1), which encodes leukotriene B4 receptor, and EPX, which encodes eosinophil peroxidase. Leukotriene B4 is an arachidonic acid-derived, neutrophil recruiting, pro-inflammatory lipid molecule, and both this leukotriene and its receptor have a role in the pathophysiology of COPD (Dong et al. 2016; Marian et al. 2006; Pace et al. 2013). The targeting of the B4 receptor has been considered as a viable approach to the treatment of COPD (Grönke et al. 2008; Hicks et al. 2010). Accordingly, the down-regulation of LTB4R by cannabis oil extract appears to be yet another indication of its anti-inflammatory potential. Interestingly, PPAR-gamma, which was up-regulated by cannabis oil extract, can also counteract inflammation mediated by leukotriene B4 in COPD (Yin et al. 2014). While eosinophil peroxidase does not appear to have been investigated as target for the treatment of COPD, it has been identified as a biomarker of the disease (Nair et al. 2013; Yang et al. 2017).

The remaining two genes down-regulated at the 1:400 and 1:800 test dilutions were MAF, encoding V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (avian), and PMCH, encoding Pro-melanin-concentrating hormone. Neither of these genes appears to have an obvious role in COPD, based on a literature search. It is interesting that a substantial number of the down-regulated GOIs encode either enzymes or proteins with functions other than as immune signaling cytokines or chemokines. There were also a number of GOIs that were up- or down-regulated at a single dilution that may prove relevant to the treatment of COPD by cannabis oil extract. Perhaps the most notable of these genes was MMP9, which encodes matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92 kDa gelatinase, 92 kDa type IV collagenase). This extracellular matrix-degrading metallopeptidase functions in a variety of normal physiological processes. However, expression and activation of MMP-9 has been associated with the pathophysiology of COPD (Grzela et al. 2016; Navratilova et al. 2016; Papakonstantinou et al. 2015). Interestingly, Zhou et al. reported that the concentration of MMP-9 was increased while that of PPAR-gamma was decreased in sputum samples from COPD patients, adversely affecting respiratory function (Zhou et al. 2017). This research indicated that PPAR-gamma had a protective effect in preventing an imbalance between MMP-9 and TIMP-1, a metalloproteinase inhibitor.

Comparisons with other studies

The results of this study were consistent with other investigations demonstrating that cannabis-derived natural products (e.g., cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol) have anti-inflammatory properties and/or are capable of generating a Th2 immune response (Cabral et al. 2015; Klein 2005; Petrosino et al. 2018; Ribeiro et al. 2012, 2015; Yuan et al. 2002; Weiss et al. 2006). IL4 (encoding IL-4) and PPARG (encoding PPAR-gamma) were two of the prominent GOIs or gene products in common between these studies and the present investigation (Klein 2005; Yuan et al. 2002; Weiss et al. 2006). The up-regulation of IL17, which was noted to be somewhat paradoxical, was also reported in a study of the effects of cannabidiol on immune response in zebrafish (Jensen et al. 2018). Otherwise, although the majority of up- and down-regulated GOIs from the present study are relevant to COPD, their regulation may represent novel findings with respect to cannabinoid effects. In contrast to the present in vitro studies, Vuolo et al. reported that cannabidiol’s anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of asthma was from the inhibition of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines (Vuolo et al. 2015). It is speculated that the mixture of compounds in the cannabis oil extract used in these studies may have been more capable of eliciting a Th2 immune response than purified cannabidiol. In support of this, a mixture containing both cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol promoted a Th2 and anti-inflammatory immune response in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model (Al-Ghezi et al. 2019). It was noted that neither cannabidiol nor tetrahydrocannabinol alone was capable of eliciting the beneficial immune response.


The data from these exploratory experiments suggest that treatment of HSAEpC cells with cannabis oil extract results in regulation of specific genes relevant to COPD. Cannabis oil extract significantly modulated the expression of 11 genes within a specific KEGG pathway (cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions). The expression of 10 genes in the KEGG pathway for JAK-STAT signaling also were modulated by the extract. Most of the up-regulated genes, such as IL4, CCL22 and TSLP, encode cytokines and chemokines that are involved in both anti-inflammatory and Th2-type immune responses. There were also certain GOIs, such as CLCA1 and CMA1, whose down-regulation could have beneficial effects in the treatment of COPD. In short, these preliminary results suggest that cannabis oil extract has the potential to help decrease inflammation, restore a Th1/Th2 balance, or ameliorate other symptoms in COPD, and possibly do the same in autoimmune or other diseases that have a hyperactive Th1-mediated immune response profile. On the other hand, the data suggest that cannabis oil extract would be contraindicated in diseases that are characterized by an aberrant Th2 immune response profile, such as asthma and allergy. It also would not be useful for subsets of COPD patients with asthma-like features, e.g., ACOS (Gold Reports 2018; Allinson and Wedzicha 2017; Hines and Peebles 2017). As a final note, the results of this study, which employed a preparation intended for oral delivery of cannabinoids, likely would not apply to ingestion of cannabinoids via smoking, which is deleterious to COPD patients. That said, based on these in vitro results, further investigations of cannabis oil extract for the treatment of COPD or other Th1-based diseases is warranted. In addition to further experiments in various in vitro model systems to confirm and extend these observations, in vivo experiments can be conducted to determine if cannabis oil extract has beneficial effects on pulmonary function in animal models of COPD. Subsequent to the results of the present study, this extract was tested for its effects on pulmonary function in Caribbean Vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). The in vivo data indicated that cannabis oil extract improved inspiratory lung functions (J. Osborn, University of Kentucky, manuscript in preparation). These experiments provide further evidence of the potential utility of cannabis oil extract in the treatment of COPD.

Can CBD Help to Treat COPD?

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the most common respiratory order in the world. In the United States alone, it is the third primary cause of death. While there is no currently known cure for COPD, there are existing treatments that can mitigate symptoms, but these often come with adverse side effects.

So, can CBD offer an alternative solution?

What is COPD?

COPD is shorthand for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. COPD is the name given to a group of lung diseases that cause breathing difficulties. COPD includes emphysema which causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs. Chronic bronchitis is encompassed within COPD and is the long-term inflammation of the airways.

COPD is commonly occurring in smokers of middle age and the elderly. There are many people who do not even realise that they are suffering from COPD. When a patient is suffering from COPD, breathing problems tend to get increasingly worse and can even limit your daily activity.

What is CBD?

CBD is the abbreviation of cannabidiol and is an organic compound found in the cannabis plant. CBD has some of the medicinal benefits of cannabis but without the psychoactive effects. This is because it is THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) that causes users of cannabis to experience psychoactive effects. CBD does not cause any psychoactive effects and does not get you high.

Can CBD be used to treat COPD?

Many people believe that using CBD regularly can help open up the bronchial passages, which enables you to breathe more easily.

There were studies undertaken over 40 years ago that found that smoking cannabis dilated the lungs making it easier for asthmatics to breathe. However, there is still so much research that needs to be conducted to provide evidence of CBD being a viable treatment for COPD.

A small randomised controlled trial of 18 participants with severe COPD did not indicate that vaporised THC made a meaningful difference in breathlessness or endurance during exercise due to the airways being more dilated.

There is currently no cure for COPD, so managing the symptoms is crucial if a patient is to ensure that their life is not severely impacted.

CBD exerts its positive effects by activating the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoid system modulates numerous functions throughout the body to provide a sustained balance and a promotion of well-being. Cannabinoids such as CBD and CBG, interact with the endocannabinoid system through CB1 & CB2 cannabinoid receptors which then activate specific bodily responses.

Can THC be used to treat COPD?

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the dominant psychoactive compound of the cannabis plant and is responsible for producing the ‘high’ typically associated with cannabis consumption in popular culture.

THC has been used in a handful of studies, although, as referenced above, typically in conjunction with CBD. However, the potential side effects of THC are far more severe than that of CBD and can include memory loss, anxiety and increased heart rate.

Less is known about THC and the prevalence of its side effects when compared to CBD. As a result, it is not typically recommended to use THC for COPD treatment until further research is conducted.

What does the research say?

Unfortunately, there are very few robust human studies that specifically investigate the links between CBD and COPD. That said, several animal studies have shown promising results which suggest that CBD may be effective in combatting certain symptoms related to COPD.

For example, a 2015 study conducted in Brazil, found that CBD could improve the airways of mice that were suffering with Acute Lung Injury (ALI). Observations revealed that the day after CBD intake, lung functioning was improved, and inflammation-causing substances were reduced. While limited to mice, the results were promising an indicate the therapeutic potential of CBD when it comes to treating inflammatory lung diseases.

A 2013 study published in the medical journal Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics provided similarly promising results. The study revealed that CBD inhibited airway obstruction in allergic guinea pigs. After being administered with substances and allergens that narrowed their airways, it was clear that CBD dramatically enhanced their quality of life.

Finally, there was a recent study looking into CBD, airway inflammation and scarring caused by asthma in mice. This was published in the European Journal of Pharmacology and revealed that CBD could not only reduce inflammatory processes, but also improve the capacity of the lungs to inflate.

So, while definitive conclusions cannot be drawn between CBD and COPD, there are very promising signs that suggest there is a therapeutic potential. The next steps with regards to research is the progression towards human studies.

What CBD dosage should be taken for COPD?

As mentioned on several occasions already in this article, there is a distinct lack of research into direct links between CBD and COPD. Consequently, dosage suggestions are currently unclear.

The safest bet is to just follow the standard dosing rule when it comes to CBD. That is to start of small and incrementally increase your dosage until you feel that you have found the optimum amount.

CBD side effects are minimal, but if you are concerned then you can always speak to your doctor before beginning consumption in order to take onboard some professional advice.

What are the side effects of using CBD for COPD?

It is well documented that CBD side effects are not only extremely low in prevalence, but also fairly benign. They are certainly less severe than those associated with existing steroidal treatments for COPD.

The most common side effects of CBD however, include:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Dry mouth
  • Fatigue
  • Minor headaches
  • Changes in appetite

It is also strongly recommended to avoid vaping CBD when it comes to treating COPD. This is because there is a lack of research into vaping in general and it can often exacerbate breathing issues.

The Pros of Using CBD for COPD

  1. CBD has been found to have anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce inflammation and the swelling of airways in the lungs.
  2. CBD can have a therapeutic benefit and increase lung capacity.
  3. CBD doesn’t have any psychoactive effects and a very limited of minor side effects.

The Cons of Using CBD for COPD

  1. Many of the studies investigating the relationship between breathing and CBD have been conducted on animals rather than humans.
  2. There is still a very limited amount of research that has been conducted on CBD at a clinical level.
  3. The regulatory environment surrounding cannabis is confusing.


CBD is certainly worth trying for anyone who is suffering from COPD. The potential to enact a decrease in inflammation may make it easier to breathe and make the symptoms of COPD less severe.

While research still needs to be improved and translated into human settings, the initial results from animal studies into respiratory disorders show great promise.

Giving cbd oil to dogs

CBD oil has become popular among many pet owners, but remember to always consult your trusted veterinarian before giving CBD to your furry companion. Have you heard of CBD oil for dogs? Cannabidiol (CBD) has become increasingly popular among people – and their pets – due to its many benefits. CBD has been found to be Pet CBD oil for dogs promotes healing and eases joint discomfort and stress. THC-free and naturally occurring omega-3 and 6. Free shipping $50+

CBD Oil for Pets – Advice from a Veterinarian

CBD oil has become popular among many pet owners, but remember to always consult your trusted veterinarian before giving CBD to your furry companion.

Have you heard of CBD oil for dogs? Cannabidiol (CBD) has become increasingly popular among people – and their pets – due to its many benefits. CBD has been found to be a great remedy for treating nausea, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, chronic pain, and much more. But did you know that those benefits aren’t just for humans? Products like CBD dog treats or CBD oil for cats can be very beneficial for your furry friend as well!

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol, or “CBD” for short, is a natural cannabinoid found in cannabis plants. A cannabinoid is a chemical that can be used to help balance the endocannabinoid system (ECS) – a natural system found in the body that helps to regulate emotions, appetite, sleep, pain and more. Although CBD is mostly used by humans, the cannabinoid can also be used to help pets.

Can CBD Cause My Pet to Feel “High?”

As mentioned before, CBD is a natural compound that is typically found with the highest concentration in hemp plants. Hemp is part of the cannabis plant family and is a cousin to the marijuana plant. Although CBD is a natural derivative of cannabis, hemp oil for dogs won’t cause your pet to experience any psychoactive effects. CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, so it is unable to cause a “high” sensation.

The cannabinoid THC, which is also found in cannabis, is responsible for those effects. In most cases, CBD oil for dogs contains only trace amounts of the compound. As long as you use a CBD product that has less than 0.3% of THC included, it is perfectly safe to be used by dogs and cats. Products with a higher concentration of THC should not be administered to pets.

Keep in mind that in order to be sold legally in the United States, CBD products must have less than 0.3% THC. However, some companies are not honest with their labeling, so it is always important to research reputable companies.

Benefits of CBD Oil for Pets

Currently, there is not much definitive data about using CBD treats for dogs to help manage health issues. However, many dog owners have reported that giving CBD to their pet has helped with treating pain, managing anxiety and even controlling seizures.

CBD is known to have anti-inflammatory properties, which can be very beneficial for pets suffering from arthritis or other forms of chronic pain. A 2015 study done on mice with arthritis found that mice that were given CBD displayed less inflammation and pain after just a few days.

There are many studies demonstrating that CBD may be a natural form of pain relief. CBD may help your pet experience less pain and feel more comfortable overall. Even better, it does not have many known side effects. This can make it a nice alternative to many traditional prescription pain medications in some situations.


Many pets also suffer from anxiety in some form, whether it’s separation anxiety or anxiety related to loud noises like thunder or fireworks. If your dog or cat has anxiety, you’ll be happy to discover that CBD oil for cats and dogs may help with that as well.

Studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown evidence that cannabidiol contains anti-anxiety properties. A 2015 meta-analysis of historical CBD research concluded that CBD oil may be a viable treatment option for a host of anxiety symptoms.

Few studies to date have focused specifically on domestic pets, but pet owners anecdotally report that CBD is effective in calming anxious cats and dogs.

It may be worthwhile testing the effects of giving CBD treats before an anxiety-triggering event, such as a thunderstorm or car journey, to help ease your pet’s discomfort. Many pet owners have also reported observing increased sleep quality in their pets after giving them a CBD treat.


CBD is also known for its anti-nausea properties as well. If you have a sick pet that doesn’t have much of an appetite or vomits on occasion, you may want to consult your veterinarian about whether CBD could be a good option to help alleviate his symptoms.

However, keep in mind that a pet with frequent vomiting or a pet that goes days without eating may be suffering from a serious condition, and he requires veterinary attention immediately.


In 2018, the AKC Canine Health Foundation (AKCCHF) announced it was launching a large study to research the effects of CBD on dogs with seizures. Many believe that CBD can be a great treatment option for dogs suffering from seizures, particularly dogs with epilepsy. The study aims to provide important information about how CBD oil for dogs can help to manage seizures. It will likely be the first study to obtain scientific data on the use of CBD in dogs with this condition.

Advice About CBD from a Veterinarian

AKC’s Chief Veterinary Officer, Dr. Jerry Klein has some advice about using CBD for your pets. In this informal interview, the AKC asked Dr. Klein a few questions about CBD oil for pets.

When asked by the AKC about CBD usage in pets, Dr. Klein said:

“There have only been a few studies published on CBD for animals, which limits true scientific data. Most of the available information is anecdotal. Studies on CBD oil for dogs, like the one being funded by AKC Canine Health Foundation, will hopefully provide the scientific data that’s needed to gain legal approval. These studies will also help determine appropriate medical use and dosage, which isn’t currently available.”

When asked about whether veterinarians can legally recommend CBD oil to their clients, Dr. Klein said the following:

“According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, ‘under current federal and state law, veterinarians may not administer, dispense, prescribe or recommend cannabis or its products for animals.’ Laws are changing rapidly, so this may change in some areas of the country. Your veterinarian is likely able to provide recommendations for other products or medications to treat your pet’s problem. Dog owners looking for more information on CBD oil should do extensive research. Be sure that your information comes from multiple, reputable sources. Look to publications that are peer reviewed.”

The AKC also asked about the potential risks of using CBD oil for dogs or cats. Dr. Klein had the following response:

“Currently, most of what veterinarians know about CBD oil and dogs is anecdotal, and there is limited scientific evidence about the effects of its use. That said, anytime you give your pet something new, there is always the potential for side effects.

Some of the reported risks of CBD oil include:

  • Drop in blood pressure
  • Increased sedation
  • Reduced saliva production
  • Decreased liver enzyme activities used to metabolize prescription drugs

Always check with your veterinarian before you start your dog on a new supplement, especially if your pet is already on prescription medications.”

How Much CBD to Give Your Pet

The question, “how much CBD oil should I give my dog?” is a good one to consider before giving your pet any amount of CBD. It’s important to note, as mentioned by Dr. Klein in the section above, that there is not much information available about the appropriate dosage of CBD for pets. However, you can usually get a good idea of dosage by reading the instructions on the CBD dog treats or oil packaging.

Most reputable companies will include information about how much of their product you should administer according to the body weight of your pet. As pet parents, keep in mind that different products contain different concentrations of CBD, so it is always important to do your research before giving any to your dog or cat.

Things to Consider Before Using CBD Dog Treats or CBD Oil for Cats

While many pet owners swear by using CBD to help their dog or cat with their anxiety, pain, and more, it is crucial that you do your own research before trying it out. It is also highly recommended that you speak to your pet’s veterinarian before you administer CBD for the first time. This is especially necessary because CBD can interact negatively with certain prescription medications, so you must ensure that CBD is a good choice for your pet’s individual health needs.

It’s also very important that when you purchase CBD for your pet, you only buy hemp oil for dogs or cats that is high-quality and pet safe. Because there is still not much regulation on CBD products, some dishonest companies sell CBD products with high amounts of THC or they include other harmful ingredients.

In conclusion, CBD may be a great natural supplement for you to give your pet. While there are many benefits of CBD oil for dogs and cats, pet parents should still be aware of the potential side effects and discuss their concerns with their veterinarians. However, you must ensure that you do your research beforehand, speak to your veterinarian, and only purchase the highest-quality products for your furry best friend.

Reviewed by Gabe Kennedy

Co-Founder of Plant People, Gabe Kennedy is an acclaimed chef and entrepreneur. Growing up in a house of healers and herbalists, he is passionate about the power of food as a tool for health, and actualized this passion and belief system into his company, Plant People. Named to Forbes 30 under 30 Gabe has shaped menus and cooked his way around the world with his mission to promote a more communal, green and healthy world.

Gabe is a graduate of The Culinary Institute of America and Cornell University School of Hotel Administration. You can learn more about his work at his website.

CBD Oil For Dogs

Our CBD tincture for dogs includes broad-spectrum CBD for maximum potency and efficacy.

Natural hemp extract oil can boost your dog’s overall health by helping with stress, sleep, immune support and cognitive functions. With consistent use your dog may experience some or all of the following benefits:

  • Everyday wellness – Promotes whole-body wellness to support optimal long-term health and vigor.
  • Calm disposition – Maintains normal, balanced behavior to help alleviate nervousness, hyperactivity, separation or tension caused by fireworks, thunderstorms, vet visits, grooming, travel or other changes in your pet’s regular daily routine.
  • Easing of occasional joint stiffness – Helps your active or aging dog bounce back more quickly from regular daily exercise for improved quality of life.
  • Fosters brain health – Enhances cognitive function and supports healthy brain development.

What goes into Zebra CBD Canine Oil?

We keep our oils pure and simple to create a highly effective, premium CBD oil for your dog. The three primary ingredients are:

  • Broad-Spectrum Hemp Extract – Our ethanol extraction method produces an unflavored extract with a robust profile of phytocannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids and no detectable THC. The formulation helps address environmentally induced stress and sleep disturbances and supports joint flexibility and mobility, immune system health and normal cognitive function.
  • MCT Oil – The fat-soluble hemp extract binds seamlessly to the MCT carrier oil for maximum bioavailability.
  • Hemp Seed Oil – Hemp seed oil naturally contains omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which help support skin health and promote normal healthy brain activity.

Try Zebra CBD Canine Oil today and find out why we pride ourselves on producing highly effective CBD formulas for dogs

  1. Insert the syringe into the Zebra CBD Canine Oil adapter.
  2. Flip the bottle and syringe upside down and let the air pocket settle.
  3. Find your pet’s proper dose on the weight chart below.
  4. Draw the oil up to the recommended amount.

Each bottle of our CBD dog oil contains 600 mg broad-spectrum CBD (20 mg per 1 mL.) Shake well before use. Use the included syringe and the table above to orally administer the proper amount, or use our handy EZ-Dose calculator:

In addition, for best results:

  • Use daily for maximum effect.
  • If the animal’s condition worsens or does not improve, stop product administration and consult your veterinarian. Safe use in pregnant animals or animals intended for breeding has not been proven. May cause diarrhea in high doses or sensitive animals. May cause lethargy in some animals.
  • Use only enclosed syringes specifically designed for use with this product. Do not use any other dosing device. Wash syringe between uses with multiple pets.

For use in adult dogs only. Keep out of the reach of children and animals.

Yes. Many veterinarians recommend CBD and even use it on their own pets. For example, in an article in the Huffington Post, Mark Verdino, MD and chief of veterinary staff at North Shore Animal League in New York, said he gives his senior pup CBD each night to help with stress: “At nighttime when the lights are dimmed down… he gets a little spooked. And when I give him the CBD, he seems to just go to sleep.”

While current research is limited, many veterinarians find that hemp extract CBD has similar effects in dogs as it does in people. CBD supports the endocannabinoid system to help us cope with stress, promote healthy sleep cycles and support general wellness

While more studies are needed, many veterinarians believe that CBD has the same relaxing effects for dogs as it does for people. In an article in the Huffington Post, Mark Verdino, chief of veterinary staff at North Shore Animal League in New York, said he gives his senior pup CBD each night to help with stress: “At nighttime when the lights are dimmed down… he gets a little spooked. And when I give him the CBD, he seems to just go to sleep.”

If your pup gets nervous at the sight of new dogs or the ping of a toaster oven, CBD tincture for dogs could potentially help.

The appropriate dosage for your pup depends on his weight. Each of our pet CBD products includes clear guidelines for use. Carefully read the product instructions before you use CBD oil for dogs.

Effects and their duration depend on several variables, including how the CBD was consumed, your dog’s weight and metabolism; dosage; and frequency of use.

Your dog should feel the effects of dog CBD oil within 15 to 60 minutes, and they may last for four to six hours. For everyday wellness, using the product daily will yield the best results.

According to the ASPCA, dogs that ingest large doses of THC may experience symptoms like mild sedation and urinary incontinence, a drunken appearance and loss of muscle control. A dog experiencing a THC overdose will need veterinary treatment, including IV fluids and anti-nausea medication. This highlights the importance of buying a quality, third-party tested CBD product that includes no detectable THC, and using it in the recommended dosages. However, it pays to be careful with your dog’s health. Consult your veterinarian to better understand the potential effects of excess CBD.

A 2019 study found that dogs experienced no adverse effects when they took CBD daily for 12 weeks. No adverse effects were reported, and the scientists concluded that CBD is generally safe for dogs. However, it’s important to consult your veterinarian and discuss any potential issues in your dog’s health history.

The right CBD dosage depends on weight. Follow the instructions on our CBD tincture for dogs to find the right amount for your canine.

A safe CBD dose and the amount considered toxic for puppies has yet to be determined. Young puppies don’t metabolize what they ingest as efficiently as older puppies and adult dogs. With no formal studies completed as yet, even on adult dogs, studies on puppies are still pending. This is why we recommend Zebra CBD Canine Oil for adult dogs only.

The company you do business with should be eager to tell you where and how the hemp plant used in your batch was grown. They should provide third-party lab test results indicating you are getting the amount of CBD listed on the supplement facts label, with THC levels of less than 0.3%. They should also state that the product is free of contaminants and harmful substances. Our CBD joint and hip soft chews for dogs have no detectable levels of THC, contaminants or harmful substances.

Hemp is a bioaccumulator, which means it absorbs toxins and other contaminants from the soil, air and water. That’s why we source exclusively from industrial hemp farms that meet our strict standards.

The source farm for our broad-spectrum CBD hemp oil uses organic practices to grow hemp under ideal weather conditions, which results in a premium plant. The hemp crop is grown in a majestic Colorado valley, where it thrives in the perfect amount of sunlight and humidity.

See our FAQs page for more information on our CBD products, shipping, returns/cancellations and more.

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Home News Military Community At Ease Sports 4th Inf. Div. Fort Carson
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Copyright © , ↑ Fort Carson Mountaineer — This Department of Defense print and online newspaper is an authorized publication for members of the Department of Defense. Contents of the Mountaineer are not necessarily the official views of, or endorsed by, the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, or Fort Carson. Published by Colorado Springs Military Newspaper Group a private firm in no way connected with the U.S. Army, under exclusive written contract with Fort Carson. The appearance of advertising in this publication does not constitute endorsement by the Department of the Army, Colorado Springs Military Newspaper Group of the products or services advertised. Everything advertised in this publication shall be made available for purchase, use, or patronage without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, marital status, physical handicap, political affiliation, or any other non-merit factor of the purchaser, user, or patron.

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Home News Military Community At Ease Sports 4th Inf. Div. Fort Carson
About Featured Photo Historical Treasures Notices Classifieds Digital Edition Archive Contact Us
Copyright © , ↑ Fort Carson Mountaineer — This Department of Defense print and online newspaper is an authorized publication for members of the Department of Defense. Contents of the Mountaineer are not necessarily the official views of, or endorsed by, the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, or Fort Carson. Published by Colorado Springs Military Newspaper Group a private firm in no way connected with the U.S. Army, under exclusive written contract with Fort Carson. The appearance of advertising in this publication does not constitute endorsement by the Department of the Army, Colorado Springs Military Newspaper Group of the products or services advertised. Everything advertised in this publication shall be made available for purchase, use, or patronage without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, marital status, physical handicap, political affiliation, or any other non-merit factor of the purchaser, user, or patron.

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But not far away.Only briefly hidden.It is really gone the cell in front of him was very simple, except for the chains that bound him and the iron door on the opposite side, there was nothing there, and he could almost see everything at a glance.

As a man, is it too much to shoot at a lady with a blue nose and a swollen face, delbon, who was still lying with a nosebleed, pulled teri behind him as he spoke.

Neither surprised nor panicked.Very bland.It seems that everything is irrelevant.Again, everything seemed to be expected.Who will believe the scum is oath others may be willing to believe.Can jason absolutely do not believe it.For jason, if the scum is oath galaxy CBD gummies can be believed, there will be no lightning and thunder for no reason.

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Compared to their viciousness.This one is gentle and gentle, with the so called wife , as if unknowingly broke into their hunting ground.

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He did not think lothar eleven was a coward.Something must have happened.The next moment, when .

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he saw the picture on the computer screen clearly, beard is face changed greatly.

She added immediately.The eldest sister and hera 2 are close sisters.Hera 2 also has special talents and can inherit the entire family.Before I was born, everyone was prepared for this, but with my birth, everything was disrupted.

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and harder than it looks.Under the pressure of the restraint that seemed to beat like a tide, although it seemed to be crumbling, it stood firm.

Then, his eyes moved upwards to the top of jason is head.No bald head have not shaved yet thinking in the bottom of my heart, the young man hurriedly bowed to the old monk of tongshou temple.

How did you find out jason asked.At the same time, that tall, strong body began to shrink at a speed visible to the naked eye.

Just as the justice of the law should be left to the judge.Maintaining justice for the majority of citizens is the same thing as the police.

Then, she stepped on the accelerator harder.The car moved straight forward.Not enough these are not enough she is going to make them pay cheap parking CBD a fierce and violent look appeared in donna is eyes.

Totally gobble.That speed is enough to surprise ordinary people.But compared with tips on how to manage stress that girl in saakura, it is a bit underwhelming.I saw the messy hair on the forehead of the saakura girl, and suddenly two hairs stood up.

Anyway, it is a very useful skill.However, the consumption of physical strength is also very large.Even with jason is physique and the limit of 7 times that of ordinary people, the master style rest of time management reached the limit after several times.

Delbon struggled, and was about to get out of the shackles of the pulsator.But immediately, he stopped moving.Because, he saw that it was not only the pulsator, but the three of john, the old instructor, hemp oil facts and a group of bronze unyielding warriors were all staring at him with extremely fierce eyes.

Looking at the crowd who chose to obey, hui lijing inexplicably thought of her sister is boyfriends.

Seems to be overwhelmed.It seemed to be terrified.Jason looked at the three of them, then looked at liang jie who came out carrying the ladder, then looked at hui lijing who looked inquiringly, and sighed slightly in his heart.

On thors, he smelled a clearer food smell.Under galaxy CBD gummies the talent enhanced sense of smell , this level of clarity is enough for him to find the food.

It did not exist before.It came out with the appearance of sender 9 and left with the departure of sender 9.

From lothar 11, he knows a complete system, and another set that is contrary to this system.

In the sight of everyone, the murderer who held the hanhan girl was knocked away.

The screams were unstoppable.Tetsu shimura, who was standing outside the door, also heard such a scream.He raised his hand and locked the door of the activity classroom.Indifferently turned around.The fourth while counting to himself, tetsuya shimura showed a grin on his face.

A character who has been planning since ten years ago is not something they can afford.

When he went to study, his mother knitted sweaters.There is not too much rebuke, there are only words and deeds.Karen has always considered her mother to be the best mother in the world.Although he is not rich.But his mother has given him the best.Then, why is he not working hard he worked hard.He moves on.When he got a community recommendation , he ran home to tell his mother the good news.

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Dizziness.Step on cotton.The wine was pouring.Lothar eleven frowned.In the cannabis oil producers past, he did not hate this feeling, but now he can not.He resisted the dizziness, leaned against the wall, moved to the bathroom step by step, and snapped his throat the liquor that had just been drank spewed out quickly.

Please take them all out and put them on the ground.A familiar voice came from behind, causing liang jie is heart to sink.There is nothing bad about being pointed at a gun.Worst of all, the person holding the gun at you knows you well.Take a breath.Ryosuke, who kept his half bend, began to take out the other gun and dagger hidden in his body and put it on the ground.

If you are worried, I will just say it tsundere is not for a big guy like you the female detective thought to herself, the corners of her mouth turned up involuntarily.

The next moment, the four beard who were playing in the corridor walked in.The four beard looked at lothar 11 kneeling there in surprise.My knees are a little stiff, and the doctor advised me to do more squats.With those words, lothar 11 stood up against the wall.Squat beard, pells, rosslow, and karen looked at each other.The four of them knew what squatting was like, and lothar 11 is movements galaxy CBD gummies Shark tank CBD gummies for high blood pressure just now had nothing to do with squatting at all.

Jason was puzzled.But that did not stop him from listening.The trick that lothar 11 tells has no name, but jason is sure that it should be a systematic mystery.

And jason turned his gaze there a step earlier.Feeling the strangeness there, the kushy CBD old monk folded his hands together.It should come, it will always come.It is just a little earlier than expected.Master, please stay here and I will solve it.The old monk said that he was about to go out.From the old monk is point of view, this was one of the troubles he caused.Although he has the idea of throwing the blame on jason, jason is really in trouble, and buy CBD flower with paypal of course he can not ignore it.

I can say that you have not completed the contract, so the bonus can not be paid to you.

Someone took a shot at the send family.Jason is innocent.Was involved in it.The send family would definitely not think so.With the style of that family, he can fully imagine what to do next.He must not be affected by chiyu.Thinking of this, the contact pers regretted coming here directly.He should wait.He came back when someone from above was sent to inquire.Instead of coming directly out of curiosity.Damn curiosity I have clearly warned myself, blue mountain CBD to maintain a normal heart but things have happened.

Why in addition to killing more ordinary people.Killing more people to collect souls create panic jason frowned slightly, but his eyes lit up.

The three of john groaned, and their bodies shook even more violently.Delbon, who was already crawling there, could no longer hold his head up at this time.

The other party swaggered to the bound jason.The right leg is caught in the beast trap , even if the leg is not broken, it still loses its mobility, not to mention the sling restraint brought by the automatic sling.

Jason himself is not a person who likes to go around in circles.Under such a premise, he cut into the subject very simply.As much as possible to ensure the smooth progress of the recruit expedition , we speculate that the sabians will desperately destroy the ceremony of the recruit expedition , forcing us to show the true kirin main ship when the recruit expedition is destroyed , we urgently need to restore morale, we must .

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need new weapons to appear, and what is more suitable than the kirin main ship however, this is also our opportunity.

At the bottom are the signatures of both parties, as well as handprints.You do not want to default, do you the female boss who was staring at jason asked.

Shimura tetsu also shouted.But the next moment, the sound stopped abruptly.He waited for his big eyes to watch as jason walked to the other side of the corridor.

He did not know what happened, but if the old monk in front of him did not give him a reasonable explanation, he would not mind letting the other party feel the fragrance of the soil after being buried deep.

Electrical demon is naturally one of them.According to the information he collected, this is a tormented, completely insane guy.

The waiters and cooks were pale and panicked.Obviously, they have never experienced such a thing at all.At this time, a man who seemed to be a manager walked out calmly.Reassure the guest.The man, in his forties, was neatly dressed and had a bandage like ornament on his head.

The female detective winked at him, her eyes full of curiosity.Just now, jason, something seemed to pop out of you.I can not see clearly.However, CBD oil for teething baby is that magic knife a purification just when jason was holding the magic knife sirius , an aura that made her feel depressed and flustered suddenly appeared on her body, and she thought that the magic knife had attacked jason.

However, the host who has been in contact with jason is obviously used to it.

Normal curses are replaced with other items.Most of them are animal flesh and blood, but to complete this fierce curse, one must use one is own flesh and blood, and even affect one is own blood.

And what jason told about lothar 11, jason also memorized it all.Although it was of no use to him.You know, the foundation of this power system is to have a god is body.Maybe for others, it is just a very difficult thing.But for jason, it is basically impossible.His stomach will not allow him to lose things.Of course, jason does not mind mastering CBD rockwall one more secret technique.After repeating it again and again accurately, after confirming that it was correct, the two walked down side by side.

If you can get it in your hands, it will be very good for your family is development.

The text in front of jason is eyes spurted out like a waterfall.Unknown energy is integrated into the protection of evil, judging.Promotion from evil protection from evil slash evil evil slashing basic it is an advanced skill to protect against evil.

Even, in a sense, this location is the safest.Because the driver needs to pay attention to the road conditions.And toys to reduce anxiety here, unexpected surprises can be observed at any time.So, jason likes to choose here.At this moment, jason frowned.In his perception 8 times more than ordinary people, many strange breaths began to appear.

He is going to die soon.Although he values promises, he really can not keep them.Jason, who was chewing lamb chops, frowned.Although the free nutritious meals have high nutritional value, he does not want to eat those things all the time in the days to come.

He does not know when he started, taking a selfie at random and matching some excerpts to be able to publish a book.

Although she surpasses the average girl, she still has a long way to go if she wants to master the skills of silver glory.

It is so to him.The same goes for other friends, of course.Thank you for your friendship.Many thanks the middle aged man watched jason accept the gift, and immediately heaved a long sigh of relief, .

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and finally let go of the heart that had been hanging.

Is not it weird the female detective described the scene just now, her face still surprised.

It would be great if the lothar family guards who have not left yet returned.

Masochist jason is invincible no one can stop jason is knife not even a masochist at first, the viewers were only shocked by jason is strength, but as time went on, as more and more masochists died under jason is sword, this shock turned into a shock , especially when some new audiences began to pour into jason is live broadcast room as the live room became less Do CBD gummies affect the liver how to reduce belly inflammation and less, and the old audiences explained jason as past safe sleep aid people.

This is the first time she has seen it.Is this the exorcist way of the exorcist hui lijing could not help thinking in her heart.

Naturally, jason is also in this range.After doing all this, the old butler spoke again.I need time to start the ritual steal the power you got from the apostle the old butler said, a smile appeared on his face again.

Anger faded first.Then there is helplessness and sadness.Lastly is fear.After calming down, karen clutched the lighter, feeling the warmth that did not exist on it.

Hanmang fendilt was startled.It is black in front of you.The blood in the chest spurted out with the pressure, like a red fountain.Fendilt is head rolled and landed at jason is feet.The behind the scenes eyes were wide open, and the remaining look in his eyes reflected Best CBD oil for seizures galaxy CBD gummies jason is tall figure stepping out.

In front of urashima.She laughed grimly.Raising her claws that were no longer human, yukiko grabbed towards urashima.

Is this my punishment after jia lun used the bonus to make up the money she owed, she was at a loss.

Finally there is a change.Jason stared at the book with wide eyes.Numbers disappeared, words began to appear when he is called mimosa.So happy.Him mimosa looking at the words that appeared in the book in the brilliance, jason was stunned.

She looked around again.Hui lixiang, come out, you bastard since you are back, why do not you dare to come out and see me small tricks like this, we do not play after the age of six you think you can scare me hui lijing roared in the loudest voice.

After a hot bath and heated milk, urashima felt the beauty of the world.Nothing special, urashima fell into a deep sleep after the hair was dried.Until 6 15am.This is his normal time to wake up.After a little activity, urashima began to exercise morning running.This is a habit that urashima developed when he was a student.Similarly, there are not many people who have such a habit.Therefore, urashima also has many friends who run in the morning.However, everyone seems to be busy recently, and there is only one young girl named yukiko who insists on doing morning exercises with him every day.

Without direct contact, jason touched the ashes with a chopstick.He leaned under his nose and smelled it.The taste is slightly different.With a hint of sweet bloody smell.Very bland just like hera 10 gave out the breath of food before.The nutrients of food entered into these dusts, did hera 10 https://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/guide/essential-tremor-drug is soul how much CBD do you need for pain become normal but then he frowned again.

This one said straight.Very straightforward, without any hesitation.Because he thought it was impossible.The old monk of tongshou temple did not answer either.He also thought it was impossible.But at this time, jason, who had eaten a roasted ghost , stood up, carried his bag, and walked towards the onigirikawa.

Naturally, in such a state, death is inevitable, especially when many monsters that appear later can touch the door frame.

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the extremely proud leader started to murmur in a low voice as he thought so.

The next moment, the picture on the screen changed.Karen appeared on the screen.Adhered to golden wool, with a sheep is hood on his head.We welcome our first golden lamb good luck everyone I also wish our golden lamb good luck although this requires great luck, as long as the golden lamb can survive to the end, he can also CBD full spectrum vape pen win the introducer on the screen said, and once again cooperated with the background sound of laughter.

2 At all.Sender 9 is familiar.What about him since the other party dared to shoot at him, he must also be familiar with him.

After two years of planning, even at the risk of sneaking into the game building , how could it be so simple to end.

Then, one of the most CBD intensive deep relief cream 1000mg impatient viewers went directly to jason is live broadcast room to leave a message stop bragging about yourself heartbreaker is on the 22nd floor dare to come among the touted barrages, this barrage is particularly conspicuous.

Since he was born, he has stood at the end point that ordinary people cannot reach in their entire lives.

But it was because he had eaten that he knew how delicious the food at the food and wine pavilion was.

From the ground next to a big tree, a screen slowly rose up against the iron frame, and the shadow on the screen actively puffed up his palm.

How dare lothar 11 did not he film the two families going to war does this mean lothar suddenly, the middle aged secretary froze in his heart.

In return, I can teach you the basics of the mystery side.Jason said frankly.The premise of trading is honesty.Since hui lijing did not have any bargaining, he would not hide anything.Knowledge is priceless.Basic knowledge of the mystery side is enough for the reward.Hui lijing nodded immediately.Basic knowledge is everything.When you have basic knowledge, will advanced knowledge be Do CBD gummies affect the liver how to reduce belly inflammation far behind the saddest thing in the world is not that you do not have a secret book that records peerless martial arts, but that you have a book that records peerless martial arts, but you can not understand it.

Men is silence as a newcomer to do such a thing shock the taciturn newcomer accomplishes unprecedented feats the birth of the strongest newcomer the one wear three worthy of attention similar manuscripts were quickly sent to the game platform, attracting everyone is attention, including other areas.

Is galaxy CBD gummies it someone related to lothar 11 just now is that lothar 1 who is the other breath lothar eleven is father listening to lothar 11 is narration, jason gradually reacted.

Almost instantly, an airtight defensive formation appeared.In the continuous sound of CBD hemp power impact, the residual power of the shock wave, wrapped in debris, hit the defensive formation like a wave.

What kind of medicine is that beard could not help thinking in his heart.As a former send family security consultant, beard has been exposed to things far beyond ordinary people is imagination.

A black figure in a cloak appeared outside the tongshou temple.Did the plan fail as expected of master tong shou temple.Not only did I see through my plan, but I anxiety disorder doctors note for anxiety just dispatched a young man to rescue the bait.

Obtain the inheritance of tongshou temple.Then, thank the old monk.Then, facing her sincere, the old monk took out the real profound meaning and passed it on to her.

And those weapons thinking of this, karen managed to turn over and sit up.There was not a drop of the concoction left in the leather pot.Although he accidentally discovered that the pot of concoction had how to reduce belly inflammation the effect of .

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quickly restoring his stamina when he was injured, he vowed to drink it sparingly, but he still drank it in the end.

He had been speculating before, why the other party would take refuge in the sabi star.

What meal did they order full meal of beef no need to check, the waiter answered affirmatively.

He bit his tongue sharply.The pain gave him temporary clarity.A force field belonging to protection from evil enveloped the whole body.Let him be temporarily safe.But only temporarily.The next moment, such a force field becomes shaky.Jason stored it in advance without hesitation, and used the remaining two protection evil directly.

Likewise, the stench became more and more obvious.With the heat in the soup bowl, it began to overflow and float.The man who called himself jiro stood in front of the door, his hearty smile galaxy CBD gummies did not change to a certain extent, the whole person was like a robot, raised his hand and slapped the door in front of him.

The weather is getting colder.Remember to add more clothes.Hui lijing in the driver is seat village cinemas melbourne CBD said without looking back, and then, with a very beautiful tail flick, she parked the car in the parking space next to the white bear cafe this is a ground parking space with signs painted on the ground.

He never thought that those bastards would use bombers to deal with jason in a frenzy.

These light spots did not disappear, they just floated in the house, which was really beautiful.

But what came was the sound of metal slashing.There was no blood splattering, and the body was divided into two.All that is left is the disintegration of shadows.It collapsed like a cloud of mist.After a snap, it disappeared without a trace.Faced with such a scene, the rushing amel 3 had long since lost the aggressiveness he had just now.

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King harvest cbd oil for dogs

King harvest cbd oil for dogs Home News Military Community At Ease Sports 4th Inf. Div. Fort Carson About Featured Photo Historical Treasures Notices Classifieds Digital Edition Archive Contact The benefits of CBD oil for dogs & cats are the same humans, since our bodies react the same. See how King Harvest CBD oil can benefit your pet!

King harvest cbd oil for dogs

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CBD Oil for Dogs & Cats

As the list of CBD benefits grows, more and more products end up on the market to help us manage our pain. But what about our furry friends? Pets often have issues with situational stress, joint discomfort, and other ailments and studies have shown that CBD oil for pets may be a good option for those who want to benefit their pet’s health.

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How to Give Your Pet CBD

There are many options when it comes to CBD for pets, including edible treats, tinctures, oils, peanut butter, chews, and more. CBD oil for dogs has been developed as a simple way to administer CBD to your dog and provide the known benefits, and King Harvest carries CBD tincture products that have been specially designed for both human and animal use. Just a few tasty drops in your dog’s mouth and they can experience the benefits of CBD for pets.

What Does CBD Oil Do For Pets?

There’s no official documentation that suggests that CBD should be used to treat pets, however, extensive research and testing indicates that it helps to relieve pain and anxiety as well as control seizures for cats & dogs. In humans, CBD is used because of its ability to relieve inflammation, provide cardiac benefits, increase appetite, reduce stress, and assist with nausea, and results from numerous studies indicate that it can be as effective when given to pets.

If you do give your pet CBD, know that they may experience a dry mouth, drowsiness, and lower blood pressure as potential side effects.

Always check with your veterinarian before giving your dogs & cats CBD oil or other CBD products.