Forbes CBD Oil

It’s important to learn about the different types of CBD and the various forms in which you can consume CBD before you start shopping. Forbes Health review the best CBD gummies and edibles to help with sleep, pain, stress and anxiety. Discover our top picks based on cost, potency, and flavors. Everything you need to know about the similarities and differences between hemp seed oil and CBD oil, including how they’re made, what they’re used for and potential benefits they provide.

What To Know About The Types Of CBD

Dr. Myles Spar is a double board-certified medical expert in performance medicine, men’s health, advanced testing and integrative medicine.

Commissions we earn from partner links on this page do not affect our opinions or evaluations. Our editorial content is based on thorough research and guidance from the Forbes Health Advisory Board.

Table of Contents

  • 3 Types of CBD
  • How to Consume CBD
  • How to Use CBD Safely

A recent Forbes Health Survey survey of 2,000 U.S. adults conducted by OnePoll found 60% of respondents have tried a cannabidiol (CBD) product and believe CBD has health and wellness benefits, including the potential to improve sleep, reduce anxiety and/or relieve pain.

Yet one-third of respondents said they don’t fully understand the differences between full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate.

It may be tempting to buy the first bottle of CBD oil you find, but to make an informed CBD product purchase, it helps to understand the different types of CBD and the various forms in which you can consume CBD.

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3 Types of CBD

CBD is largely derived from hemp, a type of cannabis sativa plant. CBD products can contain detectable amounts (no more than 0.3% by dry weight) of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the compound in cannabis plants known for causing intoxicatingly psychoactive effects.

However, consuming CBD won’t get you “high.” Instead, CBD interacts with receptors in your body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS), which includes the brain and spinal cord, potentially calming the central nervous system, alleviating anxiety, improving sleep quality and/or reducing inflammation and chronic pain symptoms.

Understanding the differences between the three types of CBD—full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate—can help you choose the best type for your specific needs and preferences.

Full-Spectrum CBD

Full-spectrum CBD refers to a hemp extract that contains CBD and other compounds naturally present in the hemp plant, such as terpenes (compounds responsible for the way a plant smells) and minor amounts of THC, says Jeff Chen, M.D. co-founder and CEO of Radicle Science, a wellness clinical research organization in San Diego, and founder and former executive director of the UCLA Cannabis Research Initiative, one of the first multidisciplinary academic programs dedicated to the study of cannabis and cannabinoids.

CBD, terpenes, flavonoids, essential oils and other cannabinoids contained in full-spectrum CBD products can work synergistically to create what’s known as the “entourage effect,” which some research indicates may increase therapeutic benefits of CBD compared to when it’s used alone.

Broad-Spectrum CBD

Broad-spectrum CBD is a hemp extract similar to full-spectrum CBD, with the exception that it typically undergoes an additional extraction process to remove all THC while leaving the remaining compounds naturally present in the hemp plant intact. With that said, testing reveals that some broad-spectrum CBD products retain minimal traces of THC, so it’s safest to refer to them as “nearly THC-free.”

CBD Isolate

As the name suggests, CBD isolate, or pure CBD, doesn’t contain any THC or other compounds from the hemp plant, says Dr. Chen. Unlike full-spectrum CBD and broad-spectrum CBD, CBD isolate cannot create the entourage effect because the extraction method isolates CBD from all other terpenes, cannabinoids and plant compounds naturally occurring in hemp.

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How to Consume CBD

There are four main ways to consume CBD:

  • Sublingually (with an oil or tincture absorbed under the tongue)
  • Oral ingestion via edibles like gummies, candies, snacks and beverages, as well as capsules
  • Vaping or smoke inhalation
  • Topical application of a CBD ointment, salve, lotion or cream

“Each way absorbs a different amount, has [a] different time to [the] onset of effects and different side effects,” says Dr. Chen.

Oils and Tinctures

CBD oils and tinctures typically come in bottle sizes ranging from 1 ounce to 4 ounces. The bottle may have a dropper labeled with dose amounts as well, typically at .25-milliliter intervals. When applying CBD oil drops under the tongue, a consumer may feel the effects more quickly than with other forms of CBD. Also, more CBD may be absorbed into the bloodstream via sublingual consumption than with other administration methods.

“Tinctures and oils may be less convenient to take compared to edibles, gummies and capsules since you could spill tincture fluid and you need to look at the amount of tincture in the dropper to determine your dose,” says Dr. Chen. “On the other hand, tinctures may afford a more flexible way to dose.”

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Gummies and Other Edibles

CBD-infused gummies and other edibles, such as candies, cookies, brownies and other foods or beverages, don’t typically kick in as quickly as oils and tinctures.

When you eat gummies and edibles, they must first be processed by the digestive system, which means there is a delay in the onset of effects—and less CBD ultimately enters your bloodstream— says Dr. Chen.

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Capsules

CBD is also available in oral capsule form. As with gummies and other edibles, when you take CBD capsules, there is typically more of a delay in the onset of effects since they must be processed through the digestive system first, says Dr. Chen.

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Lotions, Creams and Other Topicals

Many people seeking potential relief for chronic pain and various skin conditions apply lotions, salves, ointments and other CBD-infused topicals to the affected area.

“With topical forms of CBD, such as lotions or creams, only minimal amounts reach the bloodstream and thus may avoid some of the potential side effects of CBD that does reach the bloodstream, such as diarrhea and lethargy,” says Dr. Chen. However, consumers seeking relief for non-skin conditions like pain, insomnia or anxiety tend to benefit more from CBD when it reaches the bloodstream and should use a non-topical product instead, adds Dr. Chen.

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Vapes and Smoking Flower

CBD vapes come in slim, pre-filled or refillable cartridges, or “pens,” where CBD oil is administered via inhalation. You can also smoke dried flowers from the hemp plant to consume CBD.

Consuming CBD via vaping or smoke inhalation typically results in a faster onset of effects and increased absorption of CBD in the bloodstream. “However, inhalation of CBD by vape or smoking flower has a theoretical risk of damage to the lungs, makes it harder to control dose and has not been well studied,” says Dr. Chen.

There are other risks to vaping, too. Vaping can cause inhalation of vitamin E acetate, heavy metals or other compounds present in the oil or solvents used to make the CBD oil vapable, such as propylene glycol or vegetable glycerin. These additional compounds can cause pulmonary or systemic negative health effects.

How to Use CBD Safely

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hasn’t approved any over-the-counter (OTC) or consumer CBD products and has only approved one prescription drug called Epidiolex, which is used to treat seizures associated with certain forms of epilepsy and tuberous sclerosis complex, a rare genetic disease.

In fact, the FDA has issued warning letters to several CBD manufacturers, finding that many products don’t contain the levels of CBD listed on their labels. The letters also addressed companies’ illegal claims that their CBD products can prevent, diagnose, alleviate, treat or cure certain diseases, as well as their marketing of CBD products as dietary supplements.

With those FDA warnings in mind, consumers can take certain steps to ensure they’re using CBD as safely as possible. Most potential CBD benefits are based primarily on anecdotal reports because human clinical data is limited, says Dr. Chen, who stresses the importance of CBD dose.

“Most consumers are taking well under 100 milligrams of CBD a day, and although the effectiveness of CBD in this dose range hasn’t been well studied, CBD appears to be safe at the serving sizes recommended by most consumer product manufacturers,” he says. The risk is low, but possible side effects of CBD at these lower doses may include diarrhea and lethargy, he adds.

“In general, my advice on dosing any product is to find the lowest dose that is effective and doesn’t cause any intolerable side effects,” says Dr. Chen. “Consumers should start at a low dose and gradually increase, paying close attention to possible effectiveness and side effects.”

CBD may also interact with certain drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics and opioid medications, potentially causing adverse or side effects.

“Consumers should avoid taking CBD with medications that carry a grapefruit warning, such as certain blood thinners and anti-seizure medications, since CBD and grapefruit interact with similar medications,” says Dr. Chen. “CBD should also be avoided by anyone with liver disease or during pregnancy.”

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Consumers can go one step further to investigate individual CBD products by checking the certificate of analysis (COA) for the lot number of that particular CBD product. If the manufacturer offers access to the product’s COA, it may be posted on its website.

The COA lists what’s contained in a CBD product based on an analysis performed by a third-party laboratory. Generally, the COA includes hemp extract concentration, percentage of THC and other cannabinoids, and whether the product contains yeasts, molds, bacteria, pesticides or residual solvents.

Because the FDA has approved only one prescription product containing CBD, most health care providers have minimal formal education on CBD, says Dr. Chen. However, many holistic health practitioners, such as naturopathic doctors, are experienced in CBD and its effects on their clients.

“There are ‘cannabis clinicians’ in states that have legalized cannabis who have undergone additional training and/or have significant experience overseeing cannabis use in their patients, including the use of CBD,” he says. “You can find such clinicians through organizations like the Society of Cannabis Clinicians.”

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Forbes Health covers CBD and cannabis products in accordance with FTC guidelines. Learn more about Forbes Health’s practices and policies regarding how we cover CBD and cannabis as a publisher.

Forbes CBD Oil

The number of CBD gummies you take depends on the potency of the gummy, your experience with CBD and how much tends to result in desired effects for your body. People who are less familiar with CBD can start with a lower-dose CBD gummy and work their way to higher potencies as needed. You can also cut a gummy in half or take multiple gummies to achieve your preferred dose.

Potential Side Effects

Consuming CBD can lead to side effects, including fatigue, diarrhea and a change in appetite and/or weight. CBD may also interact with medications you may be taking, so check with your doctor before adding a CBD product to your wellness routine alongside medications and supplements. If you experience unpleasant side effects from CBD, discontinue use and consult your physician.

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Sources

References

  • Health Effects of Marijuana. CDC.gov. Accessed 10/27/2021.
  • Lafaye, G., Karila, L., Blecha, L., Benyamina, A. Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 2017;19(3), 309.
  • Millar, S. A., Maguire, R. F., Yates, A. S., O’Sullivan, S. E. Towards better delivery of cannabidiol (CBD). Pharmaceuticals 2020;13(9), 219.
  • First-pass digestion. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551679/. Accessed 11/2/2021.
  • Lu H-C, Mackie K. An introduction to the endogenous cannabinoid system. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;79(7):516–525.
  • Cather JC, Cather JC. Cannabidiol primer for healthcare professionals. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2020;33(3):376–379.
  • Iffland, K., & Grotenhermen, F. An update on safety and side effects of cannabidiol: a review of clinical data and relevant animal studies. Cannabis and cannabinoid research 2017;2(1), 139-154.
  • Moltke, J., & Hindocha, C. Reasons for cannabidiol use: a cross-sectional study of CBD users, focusing on self-perceived stress, anxiety, and sleep problems. Journal of cannabis research 2021;3(1), 1-12.
  • Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., Hughes, S. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: a large case series. The Permanente Journal 2019;23.
  • Balachandran, P., Elsohly, M. & Hill, K.P. Cannabidiol Interactions with Medications, Illicit Substances, and Alcohol: a Comprehensive Review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2021; 36, 2074–2084.

Information provided on Forbes Health is for educational purposes only. Your health and wellness is unique to you, and the products and services we review may not be right for your circumstances. We do not offer individual medical advice, diagnosis or treatment plans. For personal advice, please consult with a medical professional.

Forbes Health adheres to strict editorial integrity standards. To the best of our knowledge, all content is accurate as of the date posted, though offers contained herein may no longer be available. The opinions expressed are the author’s alone and have not been provided, approved or otherwise endorsed by our advertisers.

Alena is a professional writer, editor and manager with a lifelong passion for helping others live well. She is also a registered yoga teacher (RYT-200) and a functional medicine certified health coach. She brings more than a decade of media experience to Forbes Health, with a keen focus on building content strategy, ensuring top content quality and empowering readers to make the best health and wellness decisions for themselves.

Lenore Cangeloso is a board-certified acupuncturist and herbal medicine practitioner based in Oregon. She graduated with honors from Oregon College of Oriental Medicine in 2016 and obtained her bachelors of science from Oregon State University. She is also a registered yoga Instructor with a 200-hour certification from the Kripalu Institute in Massachusetts. Cangeloso has spent many months traveling to deepen her knowledge of the human body, studying massage in Thailand and traditional crafts in Mexico and Indonesia. She is a dedicated and skilled practitioner who strives to help her patients achieve optimal states of well-being.

Hemp Seed Oil vs. CBD Oil: What’s The Difference?

Dr. Myles Spar is a double board-certified medical expert in performance medicine, men’s health, advanced testing and integrative medicine.

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Commissions we earn from partner links on this page do not affect our opinions or evaluations. Our editorial content is based on thorough research and guidance from the Forbes Health Advisory Board.

Table of Contents

  • What Is Hemp Seed Oil?
  • What Is CBD Oil?

Hemp seed oil and cannabidiol (CBD) oil are sourced from the cannabis sativa plant species. Hemp seed oil is extracted from the seeds of the hemp plant, which is a variety of the cannabis sativa plant that contains less than 0.3% THC, while CBD oil comes from the leaves, stalks and flowers of both cannabis and hemp plants. Both oils can be identified across a variety of products, from beauty to food.

Read on to learn more about the similarities and differences between hemp seed oil and CBD oil, including how they’re made, what they’re used for and potential benefits they provide.

Partner Offers feature brands who paid Forbes Health to appear at the top of our list. While this may influence where their products or services appear on our site, it in no way affects our ratings, which are based on thorough research, solid methodologies and expert advice. Our partners cannot pay us to guarantee favorable reviews of their products or services

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What Is Hemp Seed Oil?

Hemp seed oil is extracted from the seeds of the hemp plant and offers a robust and nutty flavor. Consisting of around 70 to 90% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (often referred to as healthy fats), it’s abundant in omega-3 essential fatty acids, tocopherols and linoleic and linolenic acids.

Depending on the way hemp seeds are handled and processed, hemp seed oil may contain delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD oil, according to a report by Oklahoma State University. Most companies producing hemp seed oil for consumption must adhere to strict guidelines, ensuring that the products contain almost imperceptible amounts of THC, 0.3% or less. This amount will not cause psychoactive effects.

How Is It Made?

Hemp seed oil is extracted from the seeds of the hemp plant. The seeds are cold pressed, similar to the way olive oil is made. Once oil is extracted from the seed, it’s stored in a cool, dark place for processing and shipping.

How Is It Used?

Hemp seed oil can be used as a culinary oil to enhance flavor and may be drizzled on vegetables or made into salad dressings. It can also be taken straight from the spoon as a dietary supplement, as it’s found to be rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, according to the American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS).

Hemp seed oil also has a variety of industrial uses, such as paints, varnishes and other coating materials, due to its drying properties. The oil is also used in plastic flooring, such as linoleum.

Potential Benefits

Potential benefits of hemp seed oil include boosting omega intake, thanks to the oil’s unique composition of a 3-to-1 ratio of omega-6 (linoleic) to omega-3 (alpha-linolenic) essential fatty acids. In general, a diet rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids contributes to skin health, cardiovascular health, maintaining healthy blood pressure and reducing pain and inflammation, as well as potentially reducing some PMS symptoms like breast tenderness.

The dense nutritional profile of hemp seed oil also includes:

  • Antioxidants, such as vitamin E
  • Omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9
  • Carotene
  • Chlorophyll
  • Calcium
  • Sulfur
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Phosphorus
  • Zinc
  • Iron

Potential Risks and Side Effects

Hemp seed oil’s composition of fats can cause the oil to go rancid easily. A relatively low flash point—the temperature at which a liquid will vaporize or ignite when exposed to an open flame—also means it’s unsuitable for frying and is best consumed raw when fresh.

This oil is also difficult to store. Due to its fatty acid make-up, hemp seed oil is at risk of going rancid (oxidative deterioration), meaning it degrades when exposed to oxygen, according to the European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology.

For best use, hemp seed oil should be used at temperatures below 300 degrees Fahrenheit (150 degrees Celsius), and is best stored in the refrigerator or freezer after opening due to its short shelf life.

What Is CBD Oil?

CBD is one of the most abundant active constituents of the cannabis plant. It’s a non-psychoactive isomer of THC—meaning it won’t result in the intoxicating, “high” sensation. It’s derived from the leaves, stalks and flowers of hemp and cannabis plants, but as the legality of cannabis is still controversial in some places, most CBD oils are extracted from hemp plants.

“CBD is a plant compound found in cannabis sativa—both hemp and cannabis,” says Yvonne Perez Emerson, an herbalist and the founder of Make and Mary, a CBD boutique in Portland, Oregon. There are thought to be at least 100 unique compounds found in hemp known as cannabinoids, of which CBD is the second most abundant. Cannabinoids are chemical compounds that interact with the body’s central regulatory system (endocannabinoid system), which manages the body’s homeostasis (physiological balance) among bodily processes such as appetite, mood, memory, sleep, and immune system functions, adds Emerson.

They can be either consumed as phytocannabinoids found intrinsically within CBD products or produced naturally by the body (endocannabinoids). When ingested, CBD oil can help the brain and body by interacting with the endocannabinoid system and neurotransmitters that impact inflammation, pain, mood regulation and stress response.