Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at CBD (Cannabidiol) is extracted from the marijuana plant. Formerly, people used cannabis for mostly recreational purposes. However, now the cannabis plant has become very popular, given its medical benefits. It reduces itching, and has anti-aging and anti-malignancy effects, according to researchers.
Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders
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Though there is limited research confirming the purported topical benefits of cannabinoids, it is certain that cutaneous biology is modulated by the human endocannabinoid system (ECS). Receptors from the ECS have been identified in the skin and systemic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids, and their analogs, have also been associated with the manifestation of dermatological disorders, indicating the effects of the ECS on cutaneous biology. In particular, cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive compound from the cannabis plant, has garnered significant attention in recent years for its anecdotal therapeutic potential for various pathologies, including skin and cosmetic disorders. Though a body of preclinical evidence suggests topical application of CBD may be efficacious for some skin disorders, such as eczema, psoriasis, pruritis, and inflammatory conditions, confirmed clinical efficacy and elucidation of underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be fully identified. This article provides an update on the advances in CBD research to date and the potential areas of future exploration.
Keywords: cannabidiol, CBD, cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, endocannabinoid system, skin, CB1, CB2, FAAH, AEA
The Endocannabinoid System in Skin
The ECS is an evolutionarily conserved network of molecular signaling that plays a role in bodily homeostasis. 1–3 The ECS is made up of multiple components: (a) signaling molecules called endocannabinoids, (b) specific receptors, and (c) enzymes that synthesize and breakdown endocannabinoids and transporters of endocannabinoids. The most well-researched functions of the ECS are related to modulation of the central nervous system (CNS) and immune function in the body. Recent research has indicated the critical role of the ECS in maintaining skin homeostasis and barrier function, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various skin disorders like atopic dermatitis, itch, acne, hair growth/loss, and hyper/hypopigmentation. 4–7
The existence of an endogenous ECS ligand was first reported by Devane et al in 1988 when they showed that N-arachidonoylethanolamine glycerol (AEA/Anandamide) binds to the cannabinoid brain receptor in a murine model. 8 , 9 Since then, detection of numerous endocannabinoids has also been reported in the human body including the peripheral organs like skin. 10 Amongst all endocannabinoids present in skin, anandamide (N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are the most widely studied. 11 , 12 Anandamide and 2-AG were detected and quantified in the femtomolar range in both keratinocytes and fibroblast cells by Gegotek et al. 13 The biosynthesis pathways and cellular uptake of these two lipid mediators are described in multiple review articles. 2 , 14 , 15 Other less know endocannabinoids detected in skin by Kendall et al are N-palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA), N-alpha-linolenoyl ethanolamide (ALEA) N-linoleoyl ethanolamide (LEA), N-oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA), N-stearoyl ethanolamide (SEA), N-eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPEA), and, N-docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA).
Cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors are generally present in abundance in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and CB2 receptors are present in the peripheral nervous system (nerves in extremities), the digestive system, and immune system. Research indicates that both CB1 and CB2 receptors are also found in epidermal keratinocytes, cutaneous nerve fibers, dermal cells, melanocytes, eccrine sweat glands and hair follicles. 13 , 16 , 17 , 19 – 21 , 22 While cannabinoid receptors remain the primary targets for endocannabinoids, they have also been shown to bind to Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) receptors present in various types of skin cells ( Figure 1 ) and are involved in different functions like formation and maintenance of the skin barrier, cell growth, cell differentiation, immunological and inflammatory processes. 23
Schematic representation of the key components of the ECS in different cellular compartments of the skin.
In addition, endocannabinoids also interact with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) via direct (endocannabinoid) or indirect (secondary metabolite of endocannabinoids) signaling pathways. PPAR (α and γ) activation partially mediates major biological functions of endocannabinoids like neuroprotection, antiinflammation, and analgesic actions. The ECS and some other non-cannabinoid (indirect) targets influencing the ECS in different cellular compartments of the skin are also shown in Figure 1 . A simplistic mechanism of action of endocannabinoids like AEA and 2-AG on CB1 and CB2 receptors in presynaptic neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems is shown in Figure 2 , which also shows the modulation of the ECS by phytocannabinoids (PCBs) by direct activation of CB1 (like THC). Indirect mechanisms of the ECS (not shown in the figure) include inhibition of enzymatic breakdown of endocannabinoids (ECBs) and/or receptor modulation.
Modulation of the ECS by endocannabinoids and phytocannabinoids in presynaptic neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Enzymes and Transporters
The synthesis of endocannabinoid AEA is mediated by Phospholipase D while diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) regulates the synthesis of 2-AG. 24 , 25 The degradation of AEA and 2-AG primarily is regulated by two enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. 2 The biological signaling of endocannabinoids via interaction with their receptors is inhibited by a two-step mechanism. The endocannabinoids are first removed from the intracellular space by a membrane transporter known as anandamide membrane transporter (AMT) and then, after reuptake, the endocannabinoids entering the cells are metabolized by enzymes like FAAH and MAGL. 26
Types of Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids can be broken into three general categories based on where they are produced. Endocannabinoids (ECBs) are the cannabinoids compounds biosynthesized within the human body. Figure 3 represents the chemical structures of nine endocannabinoids found in human skin by Kendall et al. 10 Phytocannabinoids (PCBs) are the cannabinoids obtained from plants while synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are generated synthetically using various chemical processes (e.g., Dronabinol, Nabilone). Phytocannabinoids are found in abundance in the resin-producing trichomes of the Cannabis sativa L. plant (C. sativa). While there are many cultivars of C. sativa, regulatory bodies typically segment them into one of two different chemotypes. Industrial hemp is the chemotype with a minimal amount of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and higher levels of CBD, while the marijuana chemotype contains high levels of THC (e.g., above 0.3% w/w by dry weight). Figure 4 represents the most common phytocannabinoids found in hemp.
Chemical Structures of 9 endocannabinoids found in human skin.
Chemical structures of the most common phytocannabinoids found in the hemp plant.
Historically, hemp has been cultivated for its fiber, which can be used to produce paper or clothing, or for its nutritious seeds. More recently, hemp has gained popularity for its beneficial cannabinoid constituents including CBD. While the flowering tops and leaves of hemp have significant levels of CBD, the hemp stems/stalks and seeds have little to none. Hemp seeds contain nutritious omega-3 fatty acids and are high in protein, but only contain trace amounts of PCBs and no terpenoids. 27 Steam distillation of hemp flowering tops and leaves is commonly used to produce an essential oil containing terpenoids such as myrcene, α-pinene, and β-caryophyllene. 28 However, the volatile fraction produced from steam distillation will not contain appreciable amounts of PCBs. 29 Ethanolic and supercritical CO2 extracts of whole hemp plant or flowering tops and leaves can have significant levels of CBD. 30 These extracts have various commonly known nomenclatures like full spectrum hemp extract, broad spectrum hemp extract, hemp oil, and, phytocannabinoid-rich hemp oil/extract.
Potential of Cannabidiol for Skin Health and Dermatological Conditions
Because the ECS plays an important regulatory function in the skin, it is plausible that treatment with topical cannabinoids could be efficacious for certain disorders or skin health in general. However, most of the clinical evidence to date has focused on the effects of CBD and other cannabinoids when consumed, inhaled, or injected. There is limited research investigating the therapeutic potential for topical applications. Yet, there is evidence to suggest applying cannabinoids, and specifically CBD, topically may be a viable route of administration for certain conditions. Although CBD has a reasonable molecular weight (314.46 Da), its high log P value (lipid/water partitioning) of ~6.3, poses unique challenges to its transdermal delivery. 31 However, this challenge may be overcome if appropriate carrier systems are used, as seen with CBD being absorbed transcutaneously in preclinical models. In 2003, Lodzki et al reported successful transdermal delivery of CBD in a murine model by using ethosomal carriers. 32 Similarly, Hammel et al investigated the efficacy of topically applied CBD (1–10%) in a gel format, specifically for reduction of inflammation-associated symptoms in a monoarthritic rat model, and found that it was well-absorbed, as the plasma concentration showed a linear relationship with the dose applied. 33 In vitro diffusion studies using human tissue have demonstrated CBD’s permeation potential. 34 However, at present no clinical trials investigating the topical absorptive capability in humans have been identified. Further work is warranted to better understand the appropriate doses and delivery methods for therapeutic CBD skin applications.
Skin Protection | Barrier Function
Skin serves as a protective barrier against environmental insults which can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). 35 , 36 Oxidative stress induces cell damage and can result in chronic inflammation if left unchecked. It is also implicated in skin disorders and skin aging. 36 Keratinocytes are the main cell type in the epidermis and are particularly sensitive to environmental stressors. 37
The harmful accumulation of ROS is countered in healthy skin by activation of numerous defense mechanisms. Many of these systems are controlled by the master regulator of cellular antioxidant defense system, NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2) and PPAR-γ. 38 The stress-induced enzyme Hemeoxygenase1 (HMOX1) is one of the key NRF2 target genes and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 39 In in vitro studies, CBD has demonstrated the ability to induce expression of HMOX1 and other NRF2-regulated genes. 40 , 41 One study done in Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK), reported that CBD induced the expression of several NRF2 target genes, with HMOX1 being the most upregulated by CBD. 42 In the same study, increased levels of HMOX1 and expression of proliferation and wound repair keratins 16 and 17 were observed in mice epidermis after topical application of CBD. In another in vitro study using human keratinocytes, researchers showed that CBD was able to penetrate the cells and balance the oxidative stress response resulting from UVB irradiation and hydrogen peroxide. They also demonstrated that CBD had a protective effect against the peroxide-induced reduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the cell membrane, helping to protect membrane integrity. 43 There is evidence to suggest CBD can activate PPAR-γ, as well. Treating 2D and 3D fibroblast cells with CBD resulted in activation of PPAR-γ with a corresponding decrease in levels of NF-kB. 44 Since HMOX1 and PPAR-γ play strong cytoprotective roles with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties, treatments regulating their expression could be beneficial for skin conditions characterized by inflammation and keratin disorders, such as eczema or atopic dermatitis.
Pain and Muscle Relief
Tissue damage typically triggers an inflammatory response in the body which could result in irritation, ulcers, sensitization of peripheral tissues, neuropathies, and chronic wounds. 45 If left unresolved, a chronic inflammatory state in the body leads to increased tissue damage and pain. 46 Current therapies (cannabinoids, antidepressants, NSAIDs and anticonvulsants) for chronic pain management target the peripheral and central nervous system often producing undesirable side effects. 47 , 48 Preclinical and clinical models have shown that targeting peripheral inflammation by topical therapy (e.g., clonidine 49 , 50 capsaicin) 51 , 52 is not only effective in reducing pain for specific conditions but also circumvents the CNS, thereby reducing the negative side effects, ie, respiratory depression, sedation, and tolerance. While preclinical models strongly indicate that ingestible cannabinoids may produce antinociceptive effects in neuropathic and inflammatory pain models 53 , 54 and a moderate level of clinical evidence supports the use of ingestible cannabinoids for chronic pain (primarily THC and combination of THC+ CBD + lower levels of other cannabinoids) 18 , 55 , 56 the clinical application of topically applied CBD for pain management has not yet been validated by robust scientific and clinical studies.
Eczema or Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with multifactorial causes like environmental triggers, damaged skin barrier function, microbiome imbalance, genetic predisposition, and an altered immune response. 57 Phytocannabinoids have been shown to modulate inflammatory responses by regulating more than one underlying mechanism. Adelmidrol, a PEA derivative, has been shown to be effective in treating mild AD in a pediatric population. 58 Though the efficacy of CBD is yet to be clinically validated, in a recent study by Petrosino et al, CBD was shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in an experimental, allergic contact dermatitis model. 59
The influence of microbiome imbalance, especially due to colonization and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), has also emerged as an influencing factor which can contribute towards the severity of dermatitis. 60 , 61 The preliminary data indicating the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of hemp come from the essential oil (steam distillate) fraction of hemp which is composed mainly of terpenoids such as myrcene, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene and other terpenes, but no significant levels of CBD. 28 , 62 Zengin et al evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy of hemp essential oil (EO) against a reference strain (S. aureus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29,213) and three clinical strains (S. aureus 101 TV, S. aureus 104, and S. aureus 105). The effective Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), and the Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) hemp EO values against all S. aureus strain types were reported as 8, 16 and 24 mg/mL, respectively, which indicated the hemp EO may disrupt and eradicate a mature biofilm of S. aureus. Thus, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of hemp EO against S. aureus suggest its therapeutic potential to prevent skin disorders like atopic dermatitis. 63
When it becomes chronic, itch or pruritis can severely affect one’s quality of life. The pathogenesis of pruritis is well researched and is described comprehensively in various recent review articles. 64–66 Though most of the ECS research indicates that the itch response is primarily modulated through CB1 receptors in the CNS, 67–69 some reports argue the involvement of peripheral CB1 receptors could also be a potent contributor to itch. 70 , 71 The available data thus far for the involvement of peripheral CB2 receptors are conflicting and more research is needed to conclusively determine its role in pruritis. 72 , 73 It has also been shown that all ionotropic cannabinoid responsive receptors (e.g., TRPV1−4, TRPA1 and TRPM8) play a vital role in the complex cutaneous communication between keratinocytes, immune (Mast) cells and the sensory nerves which leads to an itch sensation. 74–78 Thus, inhibiting the activity of such ionotropic channels by selective PCBs may be helpful in alleviating pruritis.
FAAH and MAGL inhibitors, which can increase the levels of endocannabinoids and modulate cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptor responses, were found to demonstrate anti-pruritic effects on murine models when administered via intraperitoneal and intrathecal routes. 79–81 Though cannabinoids like THC and PEA have been shown to reduce itching in murine models, 82 the human clinical data for testing the antipruritic potential of PEA have resulted in conflicting results. 83 , 84 To add to the dilemma, a study by Spradley et al indicated that peripheral endocannabinoids have opposite effects on itching behavior in spinally versus trigeminally innervated skin of mice, and therapeutic treatment of itch might be more relevant for treating the lower body than itch arising from trigeminal innervated skin of the face or scalp. 85 Since CBD is a FAAH inhibitor, a CB2 inverse agonist 86 (antagonist of CB2 agonists) and TRPV1 agonist, it could potentially play a role in modulating itch response, but the scientific evidence remains scarce for this application to-date.
Wound healing is an intricate process which includes three overlapping phases – inflammation, proliferation, and maturation/tissue remodeling. 87–89 It is plausible that the complex process of wound healing is influenced by ECS signaling, as it modulates epidermal proliferation and differentiation, fibroblast functions, and cutaneous inflammation. CB1 and CB2 receptor involvement during the wound healing process in various immune and fibroblast cells are based on murine models. 90–92 In these models, various cannabinoid analogs have generated a wound healing response possibly associated with activation of CB1 and/or CB2 receptors, upregulation of anti-inflammatory factors, indirect activation of TRPV1 and epidermal growth factor receptors, and inhibition of the FAAH enzyme. 91 , 93 , 94 The evidence of the clinical application of PCBs, especially CBD, for wound healing is scarce. A single study reported three patients suffering from Epidermolysis bullosa (a rare skin disorder characterized by pain and blistering) had faster wound healing, less blistering and amelioration of pain with self-reported topical use of cannabidiol. 95 , 96
Though there is a dearth of clinical evidence, the pre-clinical models indicate an optimistic outlook. A study by Sangiovanni et al reported the effects of CBD and Cannabis Sativa Extract (CSE, standardized to 5% CBD) on human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. 97 In keratinocytes, TNF-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha) treatment resulted in upregulated expression of 26 genes involved in inflammatory pathways and included chemokines like CXCL8 and CXCL10, interleukins like IL−17C and IL−1B, and VEGF-A. Treatment with CSE downregulated all 26 inflammatory related genes, and CBD alone downregulated 15 genes. In HDF cells, TNF-α treatment upregulated 16 genes involved in the process of wound healing. While CSE was again able to downregulate all genes, CBD only downregulated 11 genes and did not exhibit any inhibitory effects on genes playing a role in inflammation and matrix remodeling, including IL−6 and MMP−9. These results indicate that the additional components within the complex cannabinoid extract, such as the other cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes, may exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect greater than that of CBD alone. More robust preclinical and clinical studies are needed to draw a conclusion on the cutaneous wound healing response of the CBD and its related compounds.
The major factors involved in acne onset are sebum overproduction, unwanted sebocyte proliferation, and inflammation. It is known that the ECS plays a key role in homeostasis of the skin, and specifically in lipogenesis. The endocannabinoid AEA, has been shown to stimulate lipid production in human sebocytes at low concentrations but induces apoptosis at higher levels. 98 Although current research is limited, several in-vitro studies indicate that CBD could be a novel therapeutic in the management of acne by acting on pathways relating to sebum production, sebocyte proliferation, and inflammation. One notable study performed by Oláh et al addresses CBD’s potential effects on several of these outcomes. First, researchers investigated the effects of CBD on sebaceous gland function in human SZ95 cells. They found that a 24-hour treatment of CBD (1–10 μM) alone caused no changes in cellular lipid synthesis; however, when cells were first treated with AEA, CBD was able to quell the lipogenic actions in a dose-dependent manner. The researchers went on to test other lipogenic substances, including arachidonic acid and a mixture of linoleic acid and testosterone, and found that CBD was able to inhibit extraneous lipid synthesis induced by those compounds, as well. This finding suggests that CBD’s effect is a universal action and is not limited to direct ECS interaction. 99 Also, it is important to note that CBD does not simply reduce lipid production but rather it is able to normalize lipogenesis in a state of imbalance. The same researchers went on to investigate the anti-proliferation abilities of CBD in-vitro. They found that CBD did not suppress cell counts beyond the starting number (did not reduce the number of viable cells) but did significantly reduce the overall proliferation of cells at 1−10 μM doses. Higher doses of CBD (50 μM) or elongated application (6 days) did result in apoptosis-driven cytotoxicity and overall viable cell count was reduced.
Finally, Oláh’s research group examined CBDs anti-inflammatory actions and found that it was able to prevent pro-acne mediators from elevating TNF-α mRNA expression. It also was able to normalize the LPS-induced expression of IL−1B and IL6. This data provided further evidence for CBD’s substantial anti-inflammatory actions. Notably, it is believed the control of sebocyte proliferation and lipid production was mediated through TRPV4 signaling, while the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD application were not. 99
In addition to previously mentioned factors, imbalance in the skin microbiome may also contribute to the pathogenesis of acne. Specifically, Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) overgrowth has been linked to the establishment of acne for over 100 years. 100 Therefore, the known anti-microbial effects of CBD may also prove effective in acne treatment. In an in-vitro study by Jin et al, a hemp seed hexane extract (HSHE) exhibited anti-microbial activity on C. acnes while inducing inflammation, and lipogenesis in sebocytes at the molecular and cellular level. 101 With 20% HSHE treatment, complete inactivation of C. acnes was observed. In this study, the content of CBD in HSHE was not reported; hence, it is difficult to attribute the contribution of CBD alone towards inactivation of C. acnes. Similarly, in a small clinical study involving men with buccal facial acne, a 3% Cannabis seed extract containing cream led to decreased sebum content and erythema. As cannabis seed extract contains minimal CBD content, it limits our understanding of application of CBD for acne and seborrhea therapy. 102 Likewise, hemp essential oil contains many terpenes which were shown to have anti-microbial effects against C. acnes (formerly known as Propionibacterium acnes). 103 , 104
We speculate that Hemp seed extract or hemp EO could also have potential for treating acne vulgaris because of its anti-lipogenic, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial, properties, which may target similar or independent mechanisms than that of CBD. Unfortunately, no large-scale human trials have investigated the role of CBD for the management of acne. Larger studies will help to understand how CBD may impact acne at the clinical level.
Modulation of Hair Growth
The human hair follicle is an immune-privileged miniaturized organ consisting of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. As part of the pilosebaceous complex, the hair follicle is extensively regulated, the extent of which is still not completely understood. Human scalp hair growth is a complex and dynamic process including a period of keratinocyte proliferation and hair fiber growth (anagen), followed by a stage of apoptotic follicle regression (catagen) and a semi-quiescent stage (telogen). 105 Hair growth abnormalities include lack of hair growth (alopecia), and excessive hair growth (hirsutism and hypertrichosis). Given the success of topically applied compounds to treat hair loss 106 coupled with the detection of major cannabinoid compounds in hair fibers, including CBD, following cannabis consumption 107 and topical application of hemp oil 108 further understanding of how cannabinoid compounds can potentially benefit hair-related issues is needed. 109–111
Immunohistochemical analysis of human skin revealed differential expression of CB1 and CB2 receptors within the hair follicle. CB1 was detected in portions of the infundibulum and the inner root sheath, but absent from the outer root sheath, the bugle, hair bulb, and arrector pili muscle. CB2 was present in the outer root sheath and hair bulb, but absent in the inner root sheath, bulge, and arrector pili muscle. 19 Surgically isolated facial hair follicle cultures showed production of ECBs – AEA and 2-AG. Intriguingly, AEA, and ∆ 9 -THC suppressed hair follicle growth and induced the catagen cycle. The effects of these endo-exo cannabinoids were ameliorated by the addition of a CB1 antagonist. 2-AG treatment, however, resulted in comparable follicle growth compared to vehicle control-treated follicles. 112
An orally administered synthetic antagonist of CB1 promoted hair growth stimulation in obese mice but had no effect when applied topically. Whether oral administration of the CB1 antagonist specifically targeted CB1 to induce hair growth was not discussed by Srivastava et al. 113 Bodo et al identified the expression of TRPV1 in human hair follicles and outer root sheath keratinocytes. 114 Activation of TRPV1 in follicle organ cultures leads to inhibition of cell proliferation, while inducing apoptosis and catagen entry. Hair growth activators, HGF, IGF1, and SCF, were also suppressed with TRPV1 stimulation. TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also detected in human hair follicles and outer root sheath keratinocytes, and receptor activation, though not exclusively by cannabinoids, resulted in suppression of hair follicle elongation. 115 , 116 A metabolite of the endocannabinoid anandamide, bimatoprost, is recognized as a topical prostamide treatment for eyebrow hypotrichosis. 117 Khidhir et al also showed human scalp hair follicles possess select prostamide receptors within the dermal papilla. Working with human scalp, organ-cultured hair follicles, bimatoprost treatment resulted in follicle growth and it stimulated hair regrowth when applied to mouse skin. 118 A limited clinical study showed bimatoprost application also accelerated hair regrowth in alopecia areata patients to a greater extent than a topical steroid treatment. 119 Szabo et al in a pilot study using ex vivo human hair follicles and primary outer root sheath keratinocytes found systemic-like application of CBD had dose-dependent opposing effects on hair growth dynamics. 116 At the 0.1 µM and 1.0 µM doses, the hair shafts grew similar to controls, while at the 10 µM dose, growth was significantly suppressed and follicle catagen was induced. As CBD dosage increased, keratinocyte proliferation decreased. The researchers proposed that CBD concentration may lead to differential receptor activation, with low doses favorably affecting hair growth pathways and higher doses activating suppression targets such as TRPV4.
As the hair follicle contains ECS and cannabinoid-responsive receptors, coupled with the evidence of cannabinoid deposition within the fiber followed by cannabis consumption and topical application, there may be potential to use compounds like CBD to treat certain hair disorders. However, given the complexity of hair growth dynamics, research conducted employing hair follicle organ culture and systemic-like treatment, and the potential of pleiotropic effects of certain cannabinoids seen to date, additional research is needed, including clinical trials, to determine if phytocannabinoids like CBD can be effective topical interventions to treat hair loss or excessive hair growth conditions.
Skin and Hair Pigmentation
The pigmentation of human skin is the manifestation of synthesis of dark pigment, melanin, which is regulated by a melanogenesis process in melanocytes. 120 , 121 Melanogenesis is a complex process regulated by more than 250 genes. 122 Microphthalmia Transcription Factor (MITF) acts as a master regulator of melanogenesis, directly controlling the transcription of key genes involved in pigmentation such as tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein (TYRP)-1, and TYRP-2. 123
Due to a limited number of studies, the involvement of the ECS in the cascades of the melanogenesis process is not clear. In 2012, Pucci et al showed that a fully functional ECS was present in normal human primary epidermal melanocytes. Lower concentrations of AEA, as well as other endocannabinoids like Arachidonoyl-2′-chloroethylamide (ACEA), and 2-AG, demonstrated induction of melanogenesis in a dose-dependent manner via the CB1 receptor. 21 However, other studies demonstrated contrasting results with CB1 agonism inhibiting melanogenesis or having no influence. Zhou et al demonstrated that OEA acts as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and MITF production in α-MSH stimulated B16 cells via activation of ERK, Akt, and p38 pathways and inhibition of the CREB pathway. 124 Another study by Magina et al demonstrated that CB1 agonism, under UVB exposure in a co-culture model using HaCat and SK-mel-1 cells, inhibited basal melanogenesis, whereas the inhibition was reversed when a CB1 antagonist was introduced. 125 Kim et al demonstrated that a major metabolite from JWH-073, a synthetic cannabinoid, had no significant effect on hair pigmentation. 126 Unfortunately, there are limited studies regarding the effect of phytocannabinoids, such as CBD, on melanogenesis. Hwang and colleagues demonstrated that CBD stimulated both melanin content and tyrosinase activity, mediated by the CB1 receptors in human epidermal melanocytes. The melanogenic effects of CBD occur primarily through MITF upregulation, which is mediated by the activation of p42/44 MAPK and p38 MAPK signaling. 127
Involvement of ECS pathways in melanocytes is very complex and unclear, thus requiring additional research with various in vitro and in vivo models. Although endocannabinoids are potential mediators for healthy and diseased skin, it is believed to be premature to target pigmentation disorders using cannabinoids. 124
Potential Applications in Oral Care
There is little published about the use of CBD in oral care. In the 1950s, the topical preparations from C. sativa were found to contain antiseptic properties against several oral cavities and skin lesions. 128 , 129 In 2012, Ali et al studied the effect of C. sativa seed oil, and petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant, on two Gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus), two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi (Aspergillus and Candida albicans). The seed oil exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, moderate to high activity against Gram-negative bacteria, but was ineffective against the fungi. 130 Rashid et al tested ethanol and methanol extracts of cannabis leaves and stem against different microorganisms. A significant inhibitory effect was observed in the ethanol leaf extracts of C. sativa, with 13.8 and 21.33 mm zones of inhibition against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae, respectively. 131 At 4 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL concentrations, the aqueous and acetone extracts of C. sativa cannabinoids demonstrated a high antimicrobial activity by showing clear zones of inhibition against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3–8 mm), and Vibrio cholerae (4–10 mm) and the fungi Cryptococcus neoformans (4–10 mm), and Candida albicans (4–12 mm). 132 It must be noted that hemp seeds and stalks barely contain CBD content, whereas other parts of the hemp plant contain significant amounts of CBD and other cannabinoids.
Dental plaque is associated with several dental diseases and should be regularly removed using mechanical (toothbrushes, floss) and chemical (mouthwashes) oral regimens. Dental plaque is the complex biofilm that acts as a reservoir of several microbes adhering to the tooth surface and gum line. An antimicrobial treatment can be used as an effective aid for plaque control and to improve the inflamed tissues of gums and bones. 130 Microorganisms forming the biofilm of the dental plaque are Gram-positive bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans, Gram-negative bacteria, and several other anaerobes such as Fusobacterium and Actinobacteria. In 2019, Stahl et al assessed the efficacy of cannabinoids (BGA, cannabigerolic acid; CBN, cannabinol; CBG, cannabigerol; CBD; and CBC, cannabichromene) in comparison to commercial oral care products. Cannabinoids were more effective in reducing the bacterial content of the dental plaque compared to the commercially available synthetic oral care products. Therefore, natural cannabinoids may have the potential to be used as an effective treatment to remove dental plaque associated oral bacteria and provide a safer alternative to synthetic antibiotics. 129
Other Skin Disorders
CBD and CBG have been reported to have potent activity against a variety of Gram-positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. 133 Likewise, an antimicrobial effect of CBD against Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) was reported with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 4 µg/mL for MRSA and L. monocytogenes and 8 µg/mL for E. faecalis and MRSE. 134 This study also characterized CBD as a helper compound that potentiates the effect of Bacitracin (BAC), a skin antibiotic. The MIC value of BAC was remarkably reduced to at least a 64-fold reduction for MRSA, MRSE and E. faecalis, when combined with ½ MIC of CBD as compared to MIC of BAC alone.
Furthermore, to assess the potentiating and synergistic effect against MRSA, growth curve and time kill assay results showed the combined activity of CBD and BAC reduced bacterial viability by 6-log10 cfu/mL as compared to CBD or BAC alone. Interestingly, CBD was able to potentiate the effects of BAC against MRSA (S. aureus USA300) and other Gram-positive bacteria. The spectrum of use of CBD and BAC on growth of Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, was also measured. The results obtained from the combined effect of CBD and BAC against these Gram-negative bacteria concluded that the combined activity of CBD and BAC was considered ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria. Due to potent antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria, cannabinoids can be used as an effective helper compound when combined with known antimicrobial actives to fight antibiotic resistant Gram-positive bacteria which cause skin disorders and other infections. 134
Some anecdotal information suggests the use of CBD for treating psoriatic plaques which are characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation and chronic inflammation. NF-kB plays a significant role in skin inflammatory conditions like psoriasis, and its expression is strongly induced by TNF-α. 135 Sangiovanni et al demonstrated that CBD and C. sativa extract (CSE, standardized to 5% CBD) inhibited TNF-α induced NF-kB transcription in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells. 97 However, in HDF cells, only CSE exhibited NF-kB inhibitory effects. In other cell types, CBD has been reported to have the ability to impair the NF-kB pathway both in-vitro and in-vivo. 136 , 137 Though CBD has shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, its role in keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation is not clear. Some in vitro studies have shown that CBD inhibits differentiation in immortalized HaCaT cells 138 and also exerts antiproliferative actions on transformed human keratinocytes (HPV16). 139 On the contrary, a study by Casares et al indicated that the role of CBD in treating psoriasis should be approached with caution due to its proliferative effects for keratins 16 and 17. 42 Thus, more robust experimentation is needed to determine the use of treatment for psoriatic lesions.
The therapeutic potential of targeting the ECS for cutaneous malignancies such as melanoma and non-melanoma skin tumors is described at length in an excellent review article by Toth et al and is beyond the scope of this article. 4 Cannabinoids such as ∆ 9 -THC and AEA have better scientific research for this application. Though some preclinical studies have shown that CBD inhibits transporter proteins involved in breast cancer 140 the application of CBD for treating cutaneous malignancies has yet to be explored in detail.
Open Questions and Future Research
The significance of the ECS in maintaining skin homeostasis and the resulting dermatological conditions from its imbalance has garnered scientific attention. Despite promising research on the topical therapeutic potential targeting the ECS, much remains unknown on the complexity of interactions of cannabinoids with other systems of the human body. A good example of this is the unintended interaction of BIA 10–2474 (a FAAH inhibitor intended for treating pain and anxiety) with the lipid network in human cortical neurons resulting in metabolic dysregulation of the nervous system. 141 , 142 Though the outcomes of this study are stemming from oral treatment at higher doses, it does have sound advice to treat any topical application of cannabinoids with due diligence. While many topical CBD products appear to be relatively well tolerated, topical safety studies are underway, and the evidence is still emerging.
The authors conclude that while the therapeutic potential of CBD for acne, seborrhea, eczema/dermatitis, and skin barrier function is promising, more robust studies are needed to fully validate its efficacy. The therapeutic potential of CBD should also be balanced with largely unknown/contrasting early studies in modulating pigmentation and hair growth. Thus, there is an underlying need for intense fundamental scientific research as any speculative science could lead to unwanted effects like hair growth/loss or hyper/hypopigmentation issues. Looking beyond the horizon of the buzzword CBD, the therapeutic benefits of hemp phytocannabinoids and other botanicals with phytocannabinoid-like activity ( Table 1 ), will most likely be the focus of future research.
Examples of Phytochemicals Targeting the ECS with Phytocannabinoid-Like Activity
|Ingredient||Chemical Classification||Plant Source(s)||Mechanism of Actions||Potential Therapeutic Actions|
|Limonene||Terpene||Citrus fruits||Glutathione upregulation 143||Antioxidant, antitumor activity 143|
|β-Carophyllene (BCP)||Sesquiterpene||Hops, Copaiba, black pepper, rosemary, hemp essential oil 144||CB2 receptor agonism 145 ,146||Anxiolytic, antinociceptive 144 ,146–148|
|Echinacea||Alkylamides||Echinacea, Sichuan pepper||CB2 receptor agonism 149–151||Anti-inflammatory 152 , antimicrobial 153 , antioxidant 154|
|Turmeric||Curcuminoids||Turmeric||CB1 receptor agonism 155||Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties 156|
|Boswellic acids||Triterpenes||Frankincense||Inhibition of PGE2 (Prostaglandin E2) synthase 157||Anti-inflammatory 157|
|Magnolia||Polyphenols||Magnolia bark||CB2 receptor agonism 158||Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory 159|
|Ashwagandha||Lactones and steroidal alkaloids||Withania somnifera||Potential GABA mimetic action 160||Immuno-modulatory, stress reduction 160|
All the authors are employees of Amway Corporation which has commercial offerings in the wellness space. The authors report no other potential conflicts of interest for this work.
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Articles from Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology are provided here courtesy of Dove Press
Benefits of CBD Oil – Pain Skin Care Hair Growth and More
CBD (Cannabidiol) is extracted from the marijuana plant. Formerly, people used cannabis for mostly recreational purposes. However, now the cannabis plant has become very popular, given its medical benefits. Many scientific studies have shown that marijuana can not only be smoked for anxiety and depression but other compounds that are extracted from it like hemp oil etc. it can also provide numerous benefits to human health like blood circulation.; CBD oil benefits for high blood pressure include various health effects of its consumption that improve homeostasis. Even domesticated furry animals like cats can get benefited from cannabis. Surprisingly, right?
Say Good-Bye to Anxiety
The world today is moving too fast, and everyone is trying to maintain a pace, which is why anxiety is very common due to stress and workload. Mental health disorders like anxiety and depression have a disturbing effect on the well-being of one. Psychiatrists prescribe medication like benzodiazepines, which can be addictive and result in drug abuse.
CBD oil, however, has more effective results. By improving the response of the brain’s receptors to serotonin, CBD oil relieves anxiety, depression, OCD, and other mental disordered up to a great extent, and one does not become addicted to it, which makes it a safe product. Some studies have revealed that usage of CBD oil has helped people with stress and has improved their brain’s performance.
- The depressing effect calms the nervous system relieving anxiety and stress; in this way, CBD oil benefits for athletes include the relieving of pre-game anxiety, which improves their performance.
- The stimulating effect of cannabis is used for improving mood by stimulating serotonin in the brain that relieves anxiety. CBD oil, however I not psychoactive and will not get you high so the drug will work its magic without you having to worry about that.
Cannabis has been used as a pain reliever for a long time. It is enriched with antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Pain is related to the neurotransmitters and ECS (Endocannabinoid System) in the human body, which are responsible for controlling the functions of the biological clock like appetite, sleep, etc. CBD oil has proven to reduce chronic pain as it helps the neurotransmitters i.e., endocannabinoid to the cannabinoid receptors which reduces inflammations and relieves pain, significantly.
It also stimulated the release of serotonin and anandamide in the brain, which helps in alleviating pain recognition. Multiple studies have shown that patients of multiple sclerosis and arthritis have felt relief in pain and improved in the treatment, all in all. For this very purpose, CBD oil is available in capsule form, sprays, and liquid drops. The latter is more effective as it allows direct absorption in the circulatory system for a quicker result.
The analgesic effect lasts for a couple of hours during which one feels almost no pain; once the drug has worn out, there is a relative decrease in the pain. This property is very useful for sportspersons; CBD oil benefits for athletes comprise of its analgesic nature that heals any sprains or soreness, completely.
Skin Care (Helps Reduce Acne)
Acne occurs when the hair follicle becomes clogged with sebum (skin oils) and dead skin cells. Whether it’s puberty or environmental constraints, every other person has it. Flat areas of the face like cheeks chin and forehead are where it occurs most commonly. Some also experience acne on their back and shoulders. Several treatments are there, but most of them leave scars after the pimples and bumps go away. Despite effective treatments, acne tends to persist.
- There are various CBD oil benefits for the skin. The herbal nature of this oil does not harm your skin, and the inflammatory properties reduce acne on the whole.
- The alkaline nature of the oil neutralizes the skin’s acidic pH and tackles acne. CBD oil also has anti-aging properties that fight fine lines etc.
Looking for the right cannabis oil for your skin? Always read the description on the packaging. There are numerous packaging companies these days that offer versatile packaging solutions for CBD . The CBD oil benefits for the skin are categorized in acne, anti-aging, moisturizing, etc. which you can find out with the help of the description on the box or even the design of the box. Given the present competition in the cannabis industry, the packaging is providing a competitive advantage.
Cannabis as Cancer Treatment
Cancer treatments like chemotherapy can often lead to nausea and discomfort, which occurs mostly because of the “nocebo effect,” i.e., the negative expectation regarding a treatment/medication. There have been various prescription drugs to reduce it, but nothing has been so promising so far as CBD oil.
There are numerous studies on CBD oil’s benefits for cancer, which have shown that compounds of CBD and THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) have reduced cancer symptoms and helped smooth chemotherapy side-effects, including nausea, body pain, and vomiting. The antiemetic properties of CBD oil alleviate post-chemo nausea and sickness; the depressant nature of CBD creates a calm state of mind that manages the anguish of nausea; hence, relieving the discomfort.
CBD oil benefits for cancer do not include a cure for cancer (abnormal cell growth). Nevertheless, many studies have shown that it reduced the aggressive growth of breast cancer cells up to some extent; this might mean that in a few years, there will be a CBD-based cure of cancer. ‘Fingers crossed.’
If one is using CBD oil for this purpose make sure it’s pure and contamination-free (bought from a reliable source) and approved by your physician, so it does not interact adversely with other medicines which are the part of the treatment.
CBD for Hair
Hair fall is very common in women. Whether it’s a brush with zillion hair stuck in it or looking down the shower and seeing a strand of hair flowing down the shower drain, it frustrates you.
There is a broad spectrum of CBD oil benefits for hair as it eradicates the cause from the root. Hair loss occurs when your body is distressed or is malnourished.
The BIG question is, how does CBD oil work for hair problems?
- It does not get absorbed into hair follicles and stimulate hair growth; it makes the optimum internal environment of your body to provide a suitable condition for healthy hair growth.
- It recovers your psychological to physiological state.
- With the anti-inflammation property, reduces soreness and nourishes sebaceous glands to provide lubrication to the follicle.
- CBD oil also improves blood circulation which results in better hair growth as nutrients are delivered to all parts of the body, sufficiently; CBD oil benefits for high blood pressure are a result of this amazing property that allows better blood flow and improve cardiovascular activity.
CBD oil benefits hair in a miraculous way but tackles the bigger issue than just enhancing the growth of hair. It makes you a healthier person, so the new hair would be healthy as well. As it recovers the function of the amygdala and the medial cerebral cortex, making creating a better response to serotonin, your mind finds peace. It becomes stress-free, which contributes to better health, hence better hair.
CBD as Lip Balm
With CBD becoming the buzzword of the beauty industry, companies have started to make CBD-based beauty products, including lip balms. The skin contains ECS, which is a receptor for cannabinoids. This stimulates the effect of Cannabinoid products in the body. CBD oil’s benefits for lips are comprised of its incredible anti-inflammatory effect, which reduces the discomfort of chapped lips and enables faster healing. Enriched with vitamins, it moisturizes dry lips and keeps them from chapping in the future.
Ever look at your dry puckered lips and wish they were as rosy and soft as some actress on the TV? Because been there, done that. CBD oil benefits lips in astonishing ways as it does not only moisturize them but dramatically improves their appearance. CBD balms are simple to apply; you can use one like a Chapstick or simple massage the liquid oil on your lips twice a day.
CBD Oil for Pets
A number of researches have been conducted on CBD oil benefits for cats which have revealed that the oil is quite effective on cats that too, in a similar way as humans. Because they have the Endocannabinoid System just like humans, which creates receptions for the cannabinoid and makes its effect more viable. CBD oil has been very useful for pet health and is being used by many.
- Domesticated animals like cats and dogs can suffer from arthritis and cancer, for which CBD has been very effective.
- CBD oil benefits for cats include the inflammation property, which reduces the discomfort of cancer symptoms and arthritis. It also helps with chronic pain like neuropathic pain as well as regular sprained joint pain for active breeds of pets.
- As cats have a lot in common with humans like the ECS, which controls mood and appetite, they get anxiety and depression. It may also happen when a hormonal imbalance occurs; CBD helps in improving blood circulation and stimulates serotonin, which makes them feel better.
- As cannabinoids affect brain activity, which makes it is useful for epileptic pets. It does not make it go away but reduces the seizures up to a great extent as it reduces the electric impulse commotion in the brain.
- It is packed with vitamins and good fats, CBD oil improves the fur quality of a pet so your pet can shine bright like the star it is
Author – Noah Nicholls
Noah Nicholls is a full-time Writer, Traveler, and Marketing Expert who is Currently Working for CBD-Boxes. Noah Nicholls writing relates to a range of subjects such as CBD and health.
The Benefits of CBD In Scalp & Hair Care
It reduces itching, and has anti-aging and anti-malignancy effects, according to researchers.
CBD is in the news, in tinctures, in skin care creams and even in hair care products. CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol, a chemical compound found in hemp and marijuana and one of the 120 cannabinoids found in cannabis. Even though it is one of the hundreds of marijuana components, CBD by itself does not cause a “high.” CBD is considered a non-psychoactive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound derived from the Cannabis sativa plant. There are various reports on the versatile function of CBD, including ameliorating chronic inflammation and fibrosis formation in several tissue types.
All 50 US states have laws that legalize CBD with varying restrictions. Even though the government considers CBD in the same class as marijuana, it does not enforce against it. Cannabidiol is used medicinally as it is proven to have numerous medicinal benefits. Several pre-clinical studies on CBD formulations reveal that cannabidiol has an array of medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-nausea and anti-psychotic. This makes CBD a natural remedy for several medical conditions like anxiety, nausea and seizures. CBD is also used in the cosmetic industry for problems like dull hair color, breakage, hair loss and itchy scalp. There are numerous hair and scalp care products that use CBD as the main component.
Cannabis exudes a resin that contains cannabinoids. These cannabinoids have two principal components, cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The structure of CBD was discovered in the 1960s and gained particular attention due to its lack of psychotropic activity, low abuse potential and excellent tolerability in humans. All of these characteristics made cannabidiol an ideal candidate for clinical use. Remember that CBD alone does not have any psychoactive effects, but that some CBD products may contain trace amounts of THC. That is why many military personnel are prohibited from using CBD for pain management or other conditions. Thus, one must be careful in recommending such products to those in the military.
Clinical studies on CBD revealed that CBD oil encourages hair growth by nourishing the scalp and strengthening the hair. CBD oil is packed with omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9 acids that help improve the scalp tissue’s quality. Fatty omega acids nourish the cuticles and moisture the hair. This soothes the dryness of the scalp as the scalp absorbs nutrients and promotes hair growth. CBD oil improves blood circulation in the area near hair follicles, encouraging their growth. CBD also helps to detox the hair from dust particles and harmful chemical deposits.
Other studies conclude that CBD has great anti-inflammatory properties. This is of use for soothing eczema and scalp inflammation. Ingredients in CBD oil regulate the functioning of the immune system, calm skin inflammation and decrease hair loss. This is helpful in the treatment of conditions such as folliculitis or psoriasis. CBD also reduces dandruff and dry scalp problems by influencing the scalp’s natural sebum and oil levels. Its antimicrobial properties reduce the risk of scalp infections.
IS CBD Cost-Effective?
CBD products are a viable solution for relieving the most common problems with scalp and hair care. But are they cost-effective? Let’s find out. The average price for a CBD hair and scalp care product ranges from $12 for a leave-in conditioner to $90 for a scalp and body oil. This is very cost-effective, especially when considering the fact that an ounce (30ml) of bottled CBD oil costs anywhere from $30 to $200. There are multiple CBD formulas available out there, and each one can be expensive to produce. Plus, the price of CBD can be greatly affected by formula potency, even if it is the same size as a less expensive bottle.
What Is Trending?
More consumers seek more natural cosmetic products. Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, CBD is one of the most powerful forces in the beauty industry. Recent development in the field of CBD research established two types of CBD products that can be applied to the human body—topical and transdermal. Topical CBD products are applied to the scalp. They only affect the top three layers of the skin, so CBD should not be absorbed into the bloodstream. Cannabinoids have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, anti-aging and anti-malignancy properties by various mechanisms including interacting with the newly-discovered endocannabinoid system of the skin, thereby providing a promising alternative to traditional treatments.
Market Size & Potential
The size of the CBD markets vary wildly. One projects a CAGR of 21.2% through 2028 to reach $13.4 billion, while another estimates sales will top $1.9 billion by 2026. Still, it seems everyone agrees that the category is growing 20-3% a year. The market is primarily driven by growing consumer awareness regarding the benefits of CBD-infused personal care products.
There is not enough space in this column to mention all of the CBD hair and scalp care products on the market. It was only a matter of time until CBD entered the hair care market. CBD is essential to the human endocannabinoid system—an entirely different human hormonal system. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates multiple physiological processes, including cutaneous cell growth and differentiation. In dermatology, due to the combined lipostatic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects, CBD has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Research has also revealed that CBD reduces itching, and has anti-aging and anti-malignancy effects. As I emphasized in the “Skinification of Hair Care,” June 2021, the scalp is skin. Hair emerges from the scalp, and only a healthy scalp can grow healthy hair. This is true for CBD as well—it’s beneficial cutaneous effects extend to the scalp and hair.
- Falone Sunda and Afolake Arowolo. A molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties of cannabidiol. FASEB J,2020 Nov;34(11):14083-14092
- Attila Oláh, Balázs I Tóth, István Borbíró, Koji Sugawara, Attila G Szöllõsi, Gabriella Czifra, Balázs Pál, Lídia Ambrus, Jennifer Kloepper, Emanuela Camera, Matteo Ludovici, Mauro Picardo, Thomas Voets, Christos C Zouboulis, Ralf Paus, Tamás Bíró. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. J Clin Invest. 2014 Sep;124(9):3713-24.
Dr. Sharleen St. Surin-Lord is a board-certified dermatologist who has been practicing for more than 13 years. She is in private practice at Visage Dermatology, Largo MD. She also practices at the University of Maryland Capital Regional Health System in Maryland and she is an assistant professor of dermatology at Howard University College of Medicine. Dr. Sharleen is a member of the American Hair Research Society and you can follow her on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as DermHairDoc.