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5 Best CBD Oil for Pain & Inflammation: 2022 Update Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative

5 Best CBD Oil for Pain & Inflammation: 2022 Update

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All in all, CBD oil has many applications that can benefit patients suffering from chronic pain and other debilitating conditions. It is safe, non-addictive, natural, and can be used for a variety of ailments based on what we’ve read in customer reviews and other scientific studies online. Now that you know a little more about CBD oil, we’ll dig deeper into this topic to help you better understand why you should try the best CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022.

With millions of users and dozens of brands, it can be difficult to determine who is providing the highest quality CBD oil out there. We’ve compiled a list of the five best CBD oil companies in the industry to help you make an informed decision.

5 Best CBD Oils for Pain & Inflammation in 2022

We didn’t create this top 5 list lightly. There are many factors that went into choosing these top 5 best CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022. If you’re curious how we came to the conclusion that the above brands are the best CBD oil for pain & inflammation, then continue reading below for what helped us determine the best options.

Testimony from Experts

We searched high and low for expert testimonials from CBD oil users. We used these testimonies as part of our decision-making process to choose only the best CBD oils for pain & inflammation this year.

Product Reviews

We looked at dozens of product reviews from popular CBD oil review websites like High Times, Consumer Lab reviews, and CBD Insider reviews. This helped us determine the best products out there.

Price

The next factor we took into consideration was the price. If you’re on a budget or simply looking to make your dollar stretch as far as it can, then you need to know which CBD oil brands offer the best value for your money.

Customer Support

No matter how great a company’s products are, there will always be people who have less-than-positive things to say about them. So we took customer service into consideration when creating our top 5 list of the best CBD oils for pain & inflammation.

Brand Audits

We also conducted a thorough brand audit on each CBD oil brand to determine their reputation in the cannabis industry.

Product Testing

We put in hours of research and testing to determine which CBD oil brands consistently produced the highest quality products. We also looked at product taste, texture, consistency, potency, and ease of use.

When you’re dealing with a chronic pain condition like arthritis or lupus, it can be difficult to find relief from your symptoms. The best CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022 can help relieve some of your pain and give you a better quality of life.

1. Colorado Botanicals

Image courtesy Colorado Botanicals

Colorado Botanicals is a top CBD oil for pain & inflammation in 2022 and offers some impressive products. Their CBD oil has no THC (the compound responsible for getting “high” from smoking weed) and their hemp plants are grown without pesticides.

All Colorado Botanicals’ products are non-GMO, vegan friendly, and tested by third-party laboratories to ensure safety. The company uses CO2 extraction when making its CBD oil to maximize potency and purity. This method also preserves all the terpenes in the hemp, which is beneficial for your health and can enhance the quality of sleep.

Colorado Botanicals’ CBD oil comes in a variety of strengths such as 150mg, 750mg, or 1,500mg per bottle. The best part is that the company offers free shipping on all orders over $74 across the United States.

2. Penguin CBD

Image courtesy Penguin CBD

Whether you like penguins or not, we’re confident this is by far the best CBD oil for pain and inflammation in 2022. Also, if you don’t like penguins then you should start liking them right this minute.

All joking aside, Penguin CBD does offer a variety of options to get your daily CBD oil intake. You can take their oil in a capsule or add it to your morning smoothie. They also offer a 1,000mg CBD oil bottle, which provides around 70 servings.

The company offers a 100% satisfaction guarantee on all of its products and has been reviewed by hundreds of customers online. If 1,000mg of CBD oil seems a little too much, Penguin CBD has other strengths such as their 250mg, and 500mg bottles of CBD oil. Their CBD oil bottle goes up to 5,000mg for all you long-term users out there.

3. R+R Medicinals

Image courtesy R+R Medicinals

R+R Medicinals is another top CBD oil for pain & inflammation in 2022. This company offers two varieties of full-spectrum CBD oils, including a 1,000mg version and a 2,000mg. We recommend going with the larger dosage if you’re going through severe pain or have a lot of daily stress that needs relief.

R+R Medicinals’ CBD oil is non-GMO and is also vegan and gluten free. The company uses coconut MCTs to enhance the bioavailability and absorption of CBD oil.

All of R+R Medicinals products are lab-tested for purity, potency, and consistency. The company offers a money back guarantee on all its products to ensure customer satisfaction. As an added bonus, they offer free shipping on all domestic orders.

4. BATCH CBD

Image courtesy Batch CBD

BATCH CBD is a hemp-derived CBD oil that comes in five different strengths ranging from 250mg to 5,000mg. The company offers one of the strongest lines of products on the market with their 10,000mg version containing up to 50% CBD concentration.

BATCH CBD uses CO2 extraction when making its full-spectrum CBD oil to preserve all the beneficial terpenes found in hemp. BATCH CBD’s non-GMO, vegan friendly oils are free of pesticides and herbicides and are 100% THC FREE.

BATCH CBD offers a money back guarantee on their products. Plus they offer free shipping on orders over $15 across the US.

5. Verma Farms

Image courtesy Verma Farms

Our next CBD oil for pain & inflammation in 2022 is Verma Farms. This company specializes in CBD oil for pain relief, anxiety, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and more. Plus their products can be used by both humans and pets. Their unique tincture allows the product to absorb under the tongue for quick results.

Verma Farms offers a variety of CBD oil products including pet treats, tinctures, and salves. Their full-spectrum hemp oil is made from organically grown hemp plants that don’t require any pesticides or herbicides to grow. Plus they have a guaranteed 3rd party laboratory test on each product, so you know exactly what you’re getting.

Verma Farms’ organic oils are free of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers, so you can rest assured that what you’re ingesting is 100% natural. To reduce the chance of any negative side effects, Verma Farms recommends starting with a low dose first.

6. Bonus: cbdMD

Image courtesy cbdMD

Last, but not least for oil for pain & inflammation in 2022 is cbdMD. They offer full-spectrum CBD oils and come highly recommended by thousands of customers online.

cbdMD’s line of products includes soft gels, topical salves, and oral tinctures that you can take sublingually. Find them at your local vitamin store. The company promises the best quality CBD oils around, with an emphasis on getting their products tested by third-party laboratories to ensure potency and purity.

cbdMD offers a variety of full-spectrum oil for pain & inflammation in 2022 products including 1,000mg, 2,500mg, 5,000mg, or 10,000mg per bottle. Plus they have a full line of pet products for your furry friends in need of pain relief.

But wait, there’s more! We didn’t want to leave you with just the 5 best CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022, rather we just had to give you a couple of BONUS options to choose from .

7. Bonus: FOCL

FOCL is a premium CBD brand based out of Los Angeles and Denver. Their ultra pure CBD Drops (AKA tinctures) are delicious, highly effective, and get rave reviews from loyal customers. They have an excellent reputation for high quality ingredients, amazing flavors, and fair pricing.

FOCL CBD Drops are made with organic ingredients, non-gmo, vegan, and THC-free, so you can relax, recover, and focus with peace of mind.

In terms of taste, they are hands down one of the best we’ve tried. They have a variety of flavors and strengths to choose from. In terms of value, we highly recommend their 2000mg CBD Drops .

All FOCL products are made in the USA, GMP Certified, and are extensively tested by third party labs (test results available on FOCL’s website), so you can rest assured knowing that there are no harmful toxins, heavy metals, or pesticides in any of their products.

The team at FOCL (short for Focus) is passionate about wellness and obsessed with producing products that actually work. In addition to their top rated CBD drops, they also have premium CBD gummies, relief cream and unique wellness formulas designed specifically for Focus, Sleep, Pain Relief and Immunity. For extra savings, try one of their 3-pack bundles .

CBD oil is a natural and non-intoxicating substance that can be extracted from the cannabis plant. CBD oils contain concentrated cannabidiol, which when administered orally or through an inhaler, helps alleviate pain and inflammation.

CBD is one of over 100 cannabinoids present in cannabis plants, but unlike THC (the cannabinoid responsible for getting people “high”), it does not produce any psychoactive effects. In fact, CBD has been shown to actually counteract some of the psychotic symptoms caused by THC exposure.

This makes it a useful therapeutic option for patients with severe forms of epilepsy who find relief from their seizures only when given CBD treatments alongside traditional anticonvulsant medications. It also helps relieve chronic pain without causing cognitive or psychoactive side effects.

CBD is also known to be useful in reducing muscle spasms and fighting certain autoimmune diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties can help sufferers of arthritis reduce inflammation and ease their joint pain. Scientists believe it may also be effective at suppressing the growth of cancer cells.

In addition to being a health-boosting supplement, CBD has been found to have properties that can be used for cosmetic purposes as well. It moisturizes the skin and helps restore calmness in people who suffer from acne flare-ups. Since it helps treat psoriasis and eczema, CBD is also effective at combating dry skin and minimizing the appearance of fine lines.

CBD is a safe, non-addictive substance that can be used to alleviate aches and pains without causing any negative side effects. Patients have found it to be more effective at treating chronic pain than prescription painkillers, which are known to cause more severe withdrawal symptoms.

In addition to being an effective painkiller, it is also known to be a potent anti-inflammatory and can even reduce seizures caused by epilepsy. It works well on its own but has also shown positive results when it’s used in conjunction with traditional treatments for various different health conditions.

Not only can CBD oils help with pain & inflammation in 2022, but CBD products can help soothe skin disorders such as psoriasis, eczema, and acne flare-ups, as well as relieve symptoms of autoimmune diseases. CBD is also effective at minimizing the appearance of lines and wrinkles without causing any psychoactive side effects or cognitive impairment associated with THC.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD stands for Cannabidiol. It’s one of the many chemical compounds found within marijuana known as cannabinoids, which are also found in other agricultural hemp products like hemp seeds and hemp oil. Cannabis is actually a combination of three distinct plants – cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, and a third lesser known plant called cannabis ruderalis.

CBD Oil is not psychoactive because it does not contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the main compound responsible for the “high” that comes from smoking marijuana. However, CBD oil can be infused into different types of food, including candy, honey, gummies, and chocolate.

There are many benefits claimed for CBD oil. Some of these include helping with multiple sclerosis symptoms, treating chronic pain and inflammation, treating mental health conditions like stress and anxiety, fighting acne due to its anti-inflammatory properties, helping cancer patients with nausea and loss of appetite, improving heart health, and promoting better REM sleep.

Many people claim that CBD oil can be used as a natural pain reliever, antidepressant, stress reducer, and even as a potential cancer treatment. However, there aren’t many scientific research studies that back up these claims and the FDA has not approved the use of CBD oil for any medical condition. Currently, CBD oil is used as a food supplement that can be easily purchased online or from most health stores.

What’s the Difference Between CBD Oil and Hemp Seed Oil?

CBD oils made from hemp plants are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, other fatty acids that act as binding agents to help your body absorb more cannabinoids, other plant compounds such as terpenes, and vitamin E.

Hemp seed oil doesn’t contain CBD and is instead extracted from the seeds of hemp plants. This product has a higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids than its CBD oil counterpart.

Hemp seed oil also contains high levels of the antioxidant compound vitamin E, but little cannabidiol. Hemp seed oil is best suited to cooking or topical applications.

Is CBD Oil Legal?

CBD oils are legal in all states and territories, provided the products contain less than 0.3 percent THC. As the laws surrounding cannabis continue to change, experts recommend checking the federal laws on cannabis-derived compounds like CBD oil before making any purchases.

Hemp-based CBD oil is legal in most countries worldwide, but THC-free marijuana-derived CBD oil may not be legal in some territories. Customers who want to purchase hemp-derived CBD oils should check their country’s laws before placing an order or traveling across the U.S. border to a different state with stricter laws on such products.

What does CBD oil do?

CBD oil works by activating the body’s serotonin (anti-depressant effect), vanilloid (pain relief), and adenosine (anti-inflammatory effect) receptors, while also antagonizing the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Because of the way CBD oil interacts with the brain’s natural chemistry, it’s said to have more of an effect on relieving chronic pain rather than just masking the symptoms like some pain medications do.

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Many experts suggest that you start with a small dosage of CBD oil and remain consistent in taking it every day before you notice any effects. It’s also not recommended to stop taking your blood pressure medication, antidepressants, or anti-inflammatory medications before beginning CBD oil treatment – that could lead to unwanted side effects.

Where can you find CBD Oil?

You’ll have no trouble finding CBD oil online or in most drug stores across the country. However, you should always purchase CBD oil products from reputable companies that can provide you with lab reports. This is important because they will show the levels of potential contaminants like pesticides, which are normally used on hemp crops.

To avoid these impurities, many of the high-quality CBD oil companies use a supercritical CO2 extraction process that does not produce any significant heat and avoids using harsh chemicals that could damage the CBD molecules.

Once you’ve selected a CBD oil product ensure that you read all ingredients carefully to ensure your safety – some products contain a mixture of hemp oil and other essential oils, which could cause a negative reaction to those who are allergic.

What can I expect from using CBD Oil?

Because CBD oil has only been recently introduced, there aren’t many studies regarding the long-term effects of taking it. However, some individuals have reported feeling lightheaded or having an upset stomach when they first begin using CBD oil.

Some users have also noticed that they become drowsy shortly after taking their dosage, but this is a common side effect of most prescription painkillers like morphine and oxycodone as well.

There are reports of some users suffering from chronic anxiety or depression when they first began taking CBD oil, but the effects diminished over time.

There haven’t been any notable side effects reported for CBD oil thus far, but there are several precautions to take into consideration before using it:

Avoid taking CBD oil within a couple of hours of your bedtime – it may disrupt your sleep cycle.

People who have a family or personal history of psychosis should be especially careful about using CBD oil.

Make sure that you test any CBD oil product before ingesting it – some have been known to contain high levels of THC despite labeling itself as “pure CBD.”

Always purchase your CBD products from reputable stores or online merchants.

To be on the safe side, you might want to speak with your doctor before taking CBD oil.

How do you take CBD sublingually?

This is the ultimate guide to CBD oil for pain & inflammation in 2022, but you may have one more question.

How do I take it?

If you are wondering how to use CBD oil for pain management, here’s a quick reference guide.

Simply place your preferred amount of drops under your tongue and hold the liquid there for 60-90 seconds. Then, swallow what’s left in your mouth and enjoy the rest.

You should expect to feel results in about 10 minutes, but like we always say. everyone is different. So it may take a bit longer for you.

Do not eat or drink anything 15 minutes before taking CBD, or do so at your own risk.

CBD is not psychoactive, so you won’t get high even if you take too much at once. But why take the chance? Start with a small amount and increase slowly over time to see how your body reacts.

What are the effects of CBD oil under the tongue?

CBD oil is a versatile product that can be taken in many different ways.

But when you take supplements under your tongue, it takes directly into the bloodstream through tiny capillaries called arterioles. From there, the cannabinoids are transported immediately to the CB1 and CB2 receptors located in every organ of your body.

Constantly recycling, these receptors are responsible for the effects of CBD. They affect pleasure, pain, relaxation, and many other functions that keep your body running smoothly.

CBD has been shown to help with.

Relieving pain and inflammation

CBD oil is a natural anti-inflammatory. It’s known for reducing the intensity of chronic pain as well as several inflammatory diseases, including arthritis.

Easing an anxious mind

If you suffer from anxiety, it can be hard to relax, focus, and sleep. Taking CBD oil for anxiety can help you feel calmer and more relaxed throughout the day.

Promoting healthy cell growth

CBD also has antioxidant properties that slow down the aging process, prevent disease and protect your cells from damage. It even helps with acne by inhibiting bacteria responsible for breakouts.

Fighting nausea and vomiting

If you experience chronic nausea or find yourself throwing up often, CBD oil can help. It’s known to ease stomach pain and regulate your digestive tract.

CBD oil is also becoming more popular for treating conditions like migraines, epilepsy, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and even cancer due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Complete Guide For The Best CBD Oils for Pain & Inflammation in 2022

Now that you know the top 5 brands plus two bonus companies to get your CBD oil from, we wanted to share more about how these work to help you with pain and inflammation.

As always, we want you to consult with your doctor about whether these are safe for you to take. As with most medications or supplements, combining CBD oil with prescription medications or other supplements may not have the desired effect. Your doctor will know best if CBD oil is the right option for you.

What Factors Can Cause Pain and Inflammation?

Before we dive too far into the topic of taking any of these recommended CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022, we wanted to share more about what factors can cause pain and inflammation to the human body:

Physical Injury

When you suffer a physical injury, it can cause your body to experience pain and inflammation. The injured tissues become stressed during this time because they are trying to heal themselves.

Chemical Stimulation ​

We also have chemical messages in our bodies that can cause us to feel pain or experience inflammation. These molecules are called neurotransmitters, and they manipulate the communication between our cells to produce pain. If these neurotransmitter levels get too high or too low, this can also cause pain and inflammation in your body.

In today’s busy world, it is not surprising to hear that a lot of people suffer from stress on a daily basis. This can cause chemical stimulation, which can lead to inflammation and pain.

Autoimmune Disorders

Unfortunately, some people may suffer from an autoimmune disorder that causes their body to attack itself. When this occurs, it is possible for the person to experience pain and inflammation as their immune system tries to fight off these attacks.

What’s The Best CBD For Pain & Inflammation?

In short, the best CBD oil for pain and inflammation is a product that works to help your body naturally manage these symptoms. They do this by influencing your body’s hormones, neurotransmitters, and immune system functions.

The key here is finding a brand of CBD oil that actually works for you. Take some time to read reviews and inquire with your doctor before you decide on a CBD oil for pain and inflammation.

If you are considering taking CBD oil for any of these conditions or symptoms, we recommend starting slowly at first so that your body can adjust to the effects. Then, gradually increase your dosage as needed until you find what works best for you.

How CBD can potentially help with pain and inflammation

The cells in our body react to pain or injury by releasing chemicals called cytokines. These cytokines signal the immune system to release proteins that cause inflammation, swelling, and other symptoms related to pain.

By taking CBD oil for pain and inflammation, you can help your natural immune response by stopping these signals before they are sent.

CBD oil can also help reduce your body’s production of cytokines, which will help prevent inflammation and swelling. This reduction in cytokine production is another way to manage pain and inflammation that naturally occur in the human body.

By using CBD for pain management you are also reducing the number of chemicals that can cause inflammation in your body. By improving your immune system’s response to inflammation, CBD oil for pain management has the potential to treat many types of chronic pains.

How to Take CBC Oil for Pain

There are numerous ways that you can consume CBD oil. Here is a list of the most popular:

Capsules & Edibles

This is one of the most popular and easiest ways to take CBD oil. Capsules come in a variety of sizes and strengths, depending on how much CBD you need. Many people also enjoy edibles for their convenience and simplicity.

CBD Tincture

A tincture is one of the quickest and easiest ways to incorporate CBD into your daily routine. These products typically come in small glass bottles with a dropper for easy dosing.

Sublingual

A sublingual tincture can be placed under your tongue for fast absorption. This method allows the CBD to travel directly into your bloodstream, making it effective immediately.

Topical Application

Finally, CBD oil can be applied topically for localized relief. Using a topical ointment or cream has many benefits that go beyond pain management. These areas are often where you experience some of your body’s biggest pains, so apply the oil directly here to reduce inflammation and swelling on the spot.

When Should You Take CBD?

If you are taking CBD oil for pain and inflammation, it is best to take your dosage at regular intervals throughout the day. Many people enjoy using their tincture or vape additive first thing in the morning as a way to start their day off on an elevated note.

Others prefer to use these methods before bed as a way to manage any aches or pains they experienced throughout the day.

What is the Best Dosage for CBD Oil?

The most popular way to take CBD oil is through capsules that are ingested orally. This is the most common dosage for CBD oil, and also the easiest to use if you are not familiar with tinctures.

For acute pain relief, it is best to start at 5-10mg of CBD per day. If this amount does not produce any noticeable changes in your symptoms, then try increasing to 15-25mg.

Lastly, topical ointments and creams should generally be used according to the directions and needs of the user. Topical CBD oil should never be used in place of traditional pain prescriptions.

CBD Oil for Pain: Side Effects & Precautions

While CBD oil is considered very safe, there are a few considerations to keep in mind when taking this or any other supplement. Always buy from a trusted source, and make sure that you are using pure CBD oil with 0% THC.

The use of cannabis is not recommended during pregnancy or while breastfeeding unless absolutely necessary. Furthermore, children should never take CBD oil without the guidance of their doctor.

As always, talk to your doctor before taking any new supplements, especially if you have an existing medical condition.

As CBD is a relatively new supplement, there have not been any long-term studies done on the effects of taking this oil over the course of several years. While it is considered very safe, as with all things you put into your body it’s best to be cautious and informed.

In 2022, the world will know much more about the benefits and uses of CBD oil. As our understanding of this supplement grows, more manufacturers will start making pure CBD products available on a global scale.

While cannabis may still have some legal or social hurdles to overcome in many countries, the use of CBD oil for pain is an exciting and fast-growing market worldwide.

How to Select The Best CBD Oil For Your Pain & Inflammation in 2022

When looking for a CBD oil to help with pain and inflammation, it’s important to select a product that is high quality and has been tested for purity. It’s also important to make sure that the CBD oil has been extracted using a method that allows for fast absorption, such as using carrier oils or vape additives.

It’s best to start with a low dosage of CBD oil and increase gradually if needed until you find the dosage that works best for you. CBD oil can be taken orally, smoked, or applied topically.

There are many ways to take CBD oil, but be sure to follow the directions on your product for optimal results.

As CBD becomes more popular worldwide, manufacturers will develop new products that increase the bioavailability of their capsules or tinctures. This means that you’ll need less CBD oil in each serving size for it to have an impact on your pain and inflammation.

In 2022, CBD oil will most likely remain a popular choice for easing aches and pains due to its fast-acting, long lasting effects. The demand for CBD oil products will likely increase as more states legalize cannabis and consumers look for a safer alternative to opioid painkillers.

Does Taking CBD Get You High?

No! CBD oil products will not get you high, as they contain almost no THC, which is the chemical responsible for the “high” produced by traditional marijuana use.

Even though it is possible to become psychologically addicted to cannabis use, addiction-related to CBD oil use is extremely rare and unlikely.

What is the Difference Between Hemp-Derived vs Marijuana-Derived CBD Oil?

CBD oils made from marijuana plants are also low in THC. But unlike hemp-derived CBD oil, marijuana-derived CBD products may contain more psychoactive compounds like THC, which could induce feelings of sleepiness and euphoria.

Marijuana-derived CBD oil is best for customers who prefer a product with a high THC content or want to experience a “high.”

What Are The Benefits Of CBD Oil?

CBD oil works similarly to other pain medications, but without the unwanted side effects. Though not widely understood by the public, CBD has been found to have many medical benefits, including reducing inflammation and acting as an anti-inflammatory agent itself.

Topical CBD oils are also available for those who want localized relief from arthritis or other inflammatory conditions.

The most common benefits of CBD oil include:

Anti-inflammatory properties that reduce pain and swelling

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Fast acting, providing quick relief from chronic or acute disorders

Can be used in conjunction with other therapies to increase the effectiveness of treatment for certain conditions

CBD Oil Legal Status Worldwide

CBD oil is legal throughout much of the world, but it is still considered a controlled substance in many countries.

In some areas of the United States, CBD oil can be purchased at local health food stores. If you live in a state where CBD is not legal, however, you may have to travel outside your city or state to purchase it.

CBD oil can also be purchased online and shipped to customers in most areas of the United States, Canada, and Australia. If you live outside these countries, ask your local health food store about CBD products or find a shop online that can legally ship CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022 to your region of the world.

Is Hemp Oil and CBD oil the same?

Hemp oil and CBD oil are not the same, and hemp oil does not contain significant amounts of CBD.

While hemp oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and has many health benefits, it’s best known for its ability to improve skin health by hydrating dry, flaky areas such as the elbows and knees – rather than for treating issues such as inflammation and arthritis.

CBD oil is much more potent than hemp oil and does contain high levels of CBD, though it’s worth noting that the other components in cannabis plants, such as THC and terpenes, can also affect your health when combined with CBD.

Different Types of CBD Oil Extracts Are Available

As CBD oil becomes more popular, manufacturers will create new product types with advanced delivery methods to increase bioavailability and reduce negative side effects.

Full Spectrum

As you explore different CBD oil products, you may notice that many are labeled as full spectrum CBD. This means that the extract contains all of the compounds in the hemp plant, including trace amounts of terpenes and cannabinoids such as THC.

Although not to be confused with CBD isolate, full-spectrum CBD does contain small levels of THC to produce the entourage effect.

Because of this, you may experience mild side effects such as feeling tired or groggy after using full-spectrum CBD oil.

Broad Spectrum

Unlike full spectrum oils, pure CBD oil contains only CBD and is free from THC and other trace compounds found in cannabis plants. Since no extra ingredients are added during production, these CBD oils are ideal for customers who prefer the taste of pure oil. There’s also no risk of feeling tired or groggy.

CBD Isolate

CBD oil products labeled as CBD isolate contain 99 percent CBD and less than 0.3 percent THC, making it ideal for those who prefer a pure extract without any additional active compounds.

Efficacy of CBD Oils

CBD oils work best when they contain both omega-3 fatty acids and other fatty acids that act as binding agents to help your body absorb more cannabinoids.

These fatty acids include monounsaturated oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, and stearidonic acid.

The presence of these binding agents makes CBD oil easier for your body to absorb – which means you’ll need smaller doses to experience the same effects as larger amounts of oils with alternative delivery methods.

CBD oils may also contain added terpenes and a wide range of plant extracts designed to enhance bioavailability and produce additional benefits. While many hemp-derived products have high levels of cannabidiol, you should be aware that these ingredients can also contain trace amounts of THC.

Because some CBD products are produced from cannabis plants, the resulting oils may contain small amounts of THC – even if they don’t contain psychoactive ingredients that would produce a “high.” This is fine for most customers who do not have THC allergies or preferences.

Make Use of The Right Dosage Amount

Different CBD oils have different purposes and effects, so it’s best to buy a small amount of CBD oil to determine whether you feel any positive results. It’s also important not to exceed the recommended dosage as too much CBD can be counter-productive.

The dosages for each product vary by manufacturer and range from as little as 20mg per day to up to 1,000mg per day. Refer to the product’s label for specific dosage instructions and information. You can also read reviews from fellow users of CBD oil products, which will provide you with a wider range of experiences and opinions on each product.

What is the Difference Between Hemp-Derived vs Marijuana-Derived CBD Oil?

CBD oils made from marijuana plants are also low in THC. But unlike hemp-derived CBD oil, marijuana-derived CBD products may contain more psychoactive compounds like THC, which could induce feelings of sleepiness and euphoria.

Marijuana-derived CBD oil is best for customers who prefer a product with a high THC content or want to experience a “high.”

What’s the Difference Between CBD Oil and Hemp Seed Oil?

CBD oils made from hemp plants are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, other fatty acids that act as binding agents to help your body absorb more cannabinoids, other plant compounds such as terpenes, and vitamin E.

Hemp seed oil doesn’t contain CBD and is instead extracted from the seeds of hemp plants. This product has a higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids than its CBD oil counterpart.

Hemp seed oil also contains high levels of the antioxidant compound vitamin E, but little cannabidiol. Hemp seed oil is best suited to cooking or topical applications.

Is CBD Oil Legal?

CBD oils are legal in all states and territories, provided the products contain less than 0.3 percent THC. As the laws surrounding cannabis continue to change, experts recommend checking the federal laws on cannabis-derived compounds like CBD oil before making any purchases.

Hemp-based CBD oil is legal in most countries worldwide, but THC-free marijuana-derived CBD oil may not be legal in some territories. Customers who want to purchase hemp-derived CBD oils should check their country’s laws before placing an order or traveling across the U.S. border to a different state with stricter laws on such products.

What Ingredients Should I Watch Out For in CBD Oils?

The FDA does not regulate CBD oil products. But like other dietary supplements, it recommends consulting with a physician before using any hemp-derived CBD oils to treat medical conditions or to determine dosage amounts.

We also recommend checking the ingredient lists for each product you plan on purchasing at your local store and searching for information about how the product might interfere with other medications you’re taking or how it might interact with existing medical conditions.

In all honesty, if you’re searching for CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022 then you’ll want to make sure that there is no more than .3% THC in any of the CBD oils you’re buying. This will ensure you’re less likely to get a “high” from the oils, instead you’ll gain the most out of the medical or therapeutical properties of the CBD oils.

How Can I Find the Best CBD Oil?

CBD oil is gaining more and more recognition every day as a potential treatment for many different ailments. In order to determine which product would be best for you, consider your needs and lifestyle before making any purchase.

CBD oil products are available for purchase online through websites, but customers should have a firm understanding of what to look for before making any purchases.

Research and reviews of CBD oil products are also available through online resources such as the Hemp Business Journal, Leafly, and Project CBD.

How Can I Get Started With CBD Oil?

If you’re considering buying a CBD oil product, the first thing you should do is speak with your doctor to ensure it’s safe for you to use and understand all of the potential benefits of CBD oil.

After speaking with your doctor, you should visit each of the CBD brands’ websites to research more about hemp-derived CBD oils and products available for purchase. Since regulations vary from state to state, make sure to check state laws before making any purchases online.

How do you use CBD oil topically for pain?

CBD oil can be used topically for pain relief in a variety of ways. You can rub CBD oil directly onto the skin where you’re experiencing pain, or you can add it to your favorite lotion or cream to help with absorption.

Another option for using CBD oil topically is to use the CBD oil as a moisturizer or apply it directly to an injury if you’re suffering from joint or muscle pain.

Another reason that people enjoy applying CBD oil topically is because of its soothing effects on the skin and how it can help reduce inflammation. It’s even able to penetrate deep layers of stubborn skin tissue, which can help your muscles and joints better absorb the natural oils.

Each type of CBD oil has its own benefits and offers different possibilities for pain relief. The use, application method, supply, and dosage are all factors that have a bearing on how CBD can help with the pain.

While there are fewer documented cases of side effects from using CBD oil topically, it’s still possible that you could have an allergic reaction or suffer from an unknown irritation while applying CBD oil to affected areas.

Does CBD oil relax muscles?

Many people who use CBD oil and other hemp products believe that the product has a calming effect on the muscles and nerves. While research into how CBD affects connective tissue cells is ongoing, we do know that it interacts at least partially with receptors in the immune system as well as receptors throughout the endocrine and nervous system.

Mast cells make gluten-associated antibodies in response to certain foods like dairy and peanut, which is why some people are highly sensitive to trace amounts of certain foods.

CBD may have a similar effect on mast cells, which can regulate pain and inflammation by stimulating histamine release. By activating or blocking the receptors of neurotransmitters, CBD oil might be able to help reduce inflammation and relax muscles.

How long does it take for CBD oil topicals to work?

The length of time that it takes for CBD oil topicals to start working depends on the application. Creams and lotions will take longer because they need to fully absorb into your skin before you’ll begin to feel their effects, but sublingual tinctures are absorbed into the blood stream almost immediately.

Can I use other pain medications with CBD?

Currently, there aren’t many studies looking at the interaction between CBD and other pain medications. While many people believe that CBD can help relieve some of the pain, it’s important to remember that using any type of new medication without first consulting with your doctor could have serious consequences.

Most doctors will tell you not to mix CBD with other prescription painkillers without first discussing the potential risks. If you’re using both types of medication, ask your doctor if there are any interactions that may be dangerous for your health.

How much CBD should I take?

While it’s possible to take too much CBD oil, the safe upper limit of the product seems to be around 1mg per kilogram of your body weight. While that amount is considered safe for most people, it may still cause problems in smaller or younger individuals.

When taking any type of CBD oil, it’s important to take only the recommended dosage and use the product as directed on the package label. Because everyone’s biochemistry is slightly different, it’s possible that your body may not respond to CBD oil in the same manner as someone else.

If you’re taking any medication other than CBD oil, talk to your doctor about how much CBD you should take and how often you should use it. It’s also important to remember that using other medications with CBD oil may have unexpected consequences.

The same is true of CBD oil and other hemp products such as edibles and extracts, which can alter the effects of either substance on your body when taken together.

CBD seems to be a fairly safe product with few interactions when used properly, but it’s always best to talk to your doctor before beginning to use any new medication or natural remedy.

Recap of the Best CBD Oils for Pain & Inflammation in 2022

Penguin CBD – an extremely popular product that offers excellent value for money.

Verma Farms – another great option that offers full-spectrum CBD oil at a low cost to consumers.

R+R Medicinals – a full-spectrum CBD oil that’s available in the United States and ships to most countries worldwide.

Colorado Botanicals- a popular CBD oil that comes as regular strength and high-potency options.

cbdMD – another popular option that’s available for purchase online but doesn’t ship to Australia.

Bonus: BATCH CBD – a high-quality CBD oil that’s available in nine different strengths.

Bonus: TheraOne – a high-quality CBD oil that’s available in nine different strengths and ships to most countries worldwide.

Final Thoughts

Finally, we hope that you learned a lot of valuable information about how to use CBD oil for pain and inflammation without accidentally getting high from it. We wanted to share more about what factors could potentially cause pain and inflammation to the human body, as well as how CBD oil can be used to help treat these symptoms naturally.

We encourage you to read our other articles to learn more about CBD oil, what it does, how it works, and which brands are the best on the market today. If you have any questions or thoughts for us here, please do feel free to our contact form to reach us.

Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Abstract

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids of Cannabis sativa L. CBD is non-psychoactive but exerts a number of beneficial pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The chemistry and pharmacology of CBD, as well as various molecular targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other components of the endocannabinoid system with which it interacts, have been extensively studied. In addition, preclinical and clinical studies have contributed to our understanding of the therapeutic potential of CBD for many diseases, including diseases associated with oxidative stress. Here, we review the main biological effects of CBD, and its synthetic derivatives, focusing on the cellular, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD.

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Keywords: cannabidiol, cannabidiol synthetic derivatives, endocannabinoids, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, membrane receptors

1. Introduction

The endocannabinoid system is an important molecular system responsible for controlling homeostasis and is becoming an increasingly popular target of pharmacotherapy. Endocannabinoids are ester, ether, and amide derivatives of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid, and they act mainly as cannabinoid receptor ligands [1]. Endocannabinoids belong to a large group of compounds with a similar structure and biological activity called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are chemical derivatives of dibenzopyrene or monoterpenoid, and to date over four hundred have been identified. The most important of these are Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 8 -THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD), and they are members of a large group of biologically active compounds found in Cannabis sativa L. [2]. The medical use of cannabinoids, in particular phytocannabinoids, has been one of the most interesting approaches to pharmacotherapy in recent years.

CBD is one of the main pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids [3]. It is non-psychoactive, but has many beneficial pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. [4]. In addition, it belongs to a group of compounds with anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and anticonvulsant properties, among others [5]. The biological effects of cannabidiol, including the various molecular targets, such as cannabinoid receptors and other components of the endocannabinoid system, with which it interacts, have been extensively studied. The therapeutic potential of CBD has been evaluated in cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, cancer, and metabolic diseases, which are usually accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation [6]. One of the best studied uses of CBD is for therapeutic effect in diabetes and its complications in animal and human studies [7]. CBD, by activating the cannabinoid receptor, CB2, has been shown to induce vasodilatation in type 2 diabetic rats [8,9], and by activating 5-HT1A receptors, CBD showed a therapeutic effect in diabetic neuropathy [10]. Moreover, this phytocannabinoid accelerated wound healing in a diabetic rat model by protecting the endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [11]. In addition, by preventing the formation of oxidative stress in the retina neurons of diabetic animals, CBD counteracted tyrosine nitration, which can lead to glutamate accumulation and neuronal cell death [12].

This review summarizes the chemical and biological effects of CBD and its natural and synthetic derivatives. Particular attention was paid to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CBD and its derivatives, bearing in mind the possibilities of using this phytocannabinoid to protect against oxidative stress and the consequences associated with oxidative modifications of proteins and lipids. Although CBD demonstrates safety and a good side effect profile in many clinical trials [4], all of the therapeutic options for CBD discussed in this review are limited in a concentration-dependent manner.

2. Molecular Structure of CBD

CBD is a terpenophenol compound containing twenty-one carbon atoms, with the formula C21H30O2 and a molecular weight of 314.464 g/mol ( Figure 1 ). The chemical structure of cannabidiol, 2-[1R-3-methyl-6R-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol, was determined in 1963 [13]. The current IUPAC preferred terminology is 2-[(1R,6R)-3-methyl-6-prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohex-2-en-1-yl]-5-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol. Naturally occurring CBD has a (−)-CBD structure [14]. The CBD molecule contains a cyclohexene ring (A), a phenolic ring (B) and a pentyl side chain. In addition, the terpenic ring (A) and the aromatic ring (B) are located in planes that are almost perpendicular to each other [15]. There are four known CBD side chain homologs, which are methyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl [16]. All known CBD forms ( Table 1 ) have absolute trans configuration in positions 1R and 6R [16].

Chemical structure of cannabidiol (CBD) [16].

Table 1

Compound R 1 R 2 R 3
cannabidiolic acid (CBDA-C5) COOH n-C5H11 H
(–)-cannabidiol (CBD-C5) H n-C5H11 H
cannabidiol monomethyl ether (CBDM-C5) H n-C5H11 Me
Cannabidiol-C4 (CBD-C4) H n-C4H9 H
cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA-C3) COOH n-C3H7 H
(–)-cannabidivarin (CBDV-C3) H n-C3H7 H
cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1) H CH3 H

The CBD chemical activity is mainly due to the location and surroundings of the hydroxyl groups in the phenolic ring at the C-1′ and C-5′ positions (B), as well as the methyl group at the C-1 position of the cyclohexene ring (A) and the pentyl chain at the C-3′ of the phenolic ring (B). However, the open CBD ring in the C-4 position is inactive. Due to the hydroxyl groups (C-1′ and C-5′ in the B ring), CBD can also bind to amino acids such as threonine, tyrosine, glutamic acid, or glutamine by means of a hydrogen bond [17].

CBD has potential antioxidant properties because its free cationic radicals exhibit several resonance structures in which unpaired electrons are distributed mainly on ether and alkyl moieties, as well as on the benzene ring [18].

3. Biological Activity of CBD

CBD has a wide spectrum of biological activity, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which is why its activity in the prevention and treatment of diseases whose development is associated with redox imbalance and inflammation has been tested [4,19,20]. Based on the current research results, the possibility of using CBD for the treatment of diabetes, diabetes-related cardiomyopathy, cardiovascular diseases (including stroke, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, and hypertension), cancer, arthritis, anxiety, psychosis, epilepsy, neurodegenerative disease (i.e., Alzheimer’s) and skin disease is being considered [20,21,22]. Analysis of CBD antioxidant activity showed that it can regulate the state of redox directly by affecting the components of the redox system and indirectly by interacting with other molecular targets associated with redox system components.

3.1. Direct Antioxidant Effects of CBD

CBD has been shown to affect redox balance by modifying the level and activity of both oxidants and antioxidants ( Figure 2 and Figure 3 ). CBD, like other antioxidants, interrupts free radical chain reactions, capturing free radicals or transforming them into less active forms. The free radicals produced in these reactions are characterized by many resonance structures in which unpaired electrons are mainly found on the phenolic structure, suggesting that the hydroxyl groups of the phenol ring are mainly responsible for CBD antioxidant activity [18].

Direct antioxidant effects of CBD (closed arrows indicate reducing effects; opened arrows indicate inducing action).

Indirect antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CBD (closed arrows indicate inhibition; opened arrows indicate activation.

CBD reduces oxidative conditions by preventing the formation of superoxide radicals, which are mainly generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) and NADPH oxidase (NOX1 and NOX4). This activity was shown in the renal nephropathy model using cisplatin-treated mice (C57BL/6J) [23] and in human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) [24]. In addition, CBD promoted a reduction in NO levels in the liver of doxorubicin-treated mice [25] and in the paw tissue of Wistar rats in a chronic inflammation model [26].

CBD also reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by chelating transition metal ions involved in the Fenton reaction to form extremely reactive hydroxyl radicals [27]. It was shown that CBD, acting similarly to the classic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), prevents dihydrorodamine oxidation in the Fenton reaction [28]. In addition, CBD has been found to decrease β-amyloid formation in neurons by reducing the concentration of transition metal ions [29].

In addition to the direct reduction of oxidant levels, CBD also modifies the redox balance by changing the level and activity of antioxidants [19,26]. CBD antioxidant activity begins at the level of protein transcription by activating the redox-sensitive transcription factor referred to as the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) [30], which is responsible for the transcription of cytoprotective genes, including antioxidant genes [31]. CBD was found to increase the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the enzymatic activity of Cu, Zn- and Mn-SOD, which are responsible for the metabolism of superoxide radicals in the mouse model of diabetic cardiomyopathy type I and in human cardiomyocytes treated with 3-nitropropionic acid or streptozotocin [32]. Repeated doses of CBD in inflammatory conditions were found to increase the activity of glutathione peroxidase and reductase, resulting in a decrease in malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, which were six times higher in untreated controls [26]. Glutathione peroxidase activity (GSHPx) and glutathione level (GSH) were similarly changed after using CBD to treat UVB irradiated human keratinocytes. The high affinity of CBD for the cysteine and selenocysteine residues of these proteins is a possible explanation for this observation [33]. It is known that under oxidative conditions, alterations in enzymatic activity may be caused by oxidative modifications of proteins, mainly aromatic and sulfur amino acids [34]. It has also been suggested that the reactive CBD metabolite cannabidiol hydroxyquinone reacts covalently with cysteine, forming adducts with, for example, glutathione and cytochrome P450 3A11, and thereby inhibiting their biological activity [35]. In addition, CBD has been found to inhibit tryptophan degradation by reducing indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase activity [36]. CBD also supports the action of antioxidant enzymes by preventing a reduction in the levels of microelements (e.g., Zn or Sn), which are usually lowered in pathological conditions. These elements are necessary for the biological activity of some proteins, especially enzymes such as superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase [25].

By lowering ROS levels, CBD also protects non-enzymatic antioxidants, preventing their oxidation, as in the case of GSH in the myocardial tissue of C57BL/6J mice with diabetic cardiomyopathy [32] and doxorubicin-treated rats [25]. An increase in GSH levels after CBD treatment was also observed in mouse microglia cells [37] and in the liver of cadmium poisoned mice [25]. This is of great practical importance because GSH cooperates with other low molecular weight compounds in antioxidant action, mainly with vitamins such as A, E, and C [38]. CBD exhibits much more antioxidant activity (30–50%) than α-tocopherol or vitamin C [4].

3.2. The Consequences of Direct Antioxidant Action of CBD

The result of an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants is oxidative stress, the consequences of which are oxidative modifications of lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. This results in changes in the structure of the above molecules and, as a result, disrupts their molecular interactions and signal transduction pathways [39]. Oxidative modifications play an important role in the functioning of redox-sensitive transcription factors (including Nrf2 and the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). As a consequence, oxidative modifications play a role in the regulation of pathological conditions characterized by redox imbalances and inflammation, such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases [40,41].

In this situation, one of the most important processes is lipid peroxidation, which results in the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as arachidonic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids [42]. As a result of the ROS reaction with PUFAs, lipid hydroperoxides are formed, and as a result of oxidative fragmentation, unsaturated aldehydes are generated, including 4-hydroxynenenal (4-HNE), malonodialdehyde (MDA) or acrolein [43]. In addition, the propagation of oxidation chain reactions, especially with regard to docosahexaenoic acid, can lead to oxidative cyclization, resulting in production of isoprostanes or neuroprostanes [44]. The formation of lipid peroxidation products directly affects the physical properties and functioning of the cell membranes in which they are formed [42]. Due to their structure (the presence of a carbonyl groups and carbon-carbon double bonds) and electrophilic character, generated unsaturated aldehydes are chemically reactive molecules that can easily form adducts with the majority of the cell’s nucleophilic components, including DNA, lipids, proteins, and GSH [45]. For example, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) has been identified as a stimulator of the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2, an inhibitor of antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase and thioredoxin reductase) and a pro-inflammatory factor acting through the NFκB pathway [46]. These reactions reduce the level of reactive lipid peroxidation products, while increasing the formation of adducts with proteins that promote cell signaling disorders, thus stimulating metabolic modifications that can lead to cellular dysfunction and apoptosis [47,48].

In addition to lipid peroxidation, oxidative conditions also favor the oxidative modification of proteins by ROS. The aromatic and sulfhydryl amino acid residues are particularly susceptible to modifications, and can result in production of levodopa ( l -DOPA) from tyrosine, ortho-tyrosine from phenylalanine, sulfoxides and disulfides from cysteine, and kynurenine from tryptophan, among others [49]. The resulting changes in the protein structures cause disruption of their biological properties and, as in the case of lipid modification, affect cell metabolism, including signal transduction [46,50].

One of the most noticeable CBD antioxidant effects is the reduction in lipid and protein modifications [25,51]. CBD supplementation has been found to reduce lipid peroxidation, as measured by MDA levels, in mouse hippocampal (HT22) neuronal cells depleted of oxygen and glucose under reperfusion conditions [51]. A reduction in lipid peroxidation following CBD supplementation has also been shown in C57BL/6J mouse liver homogenates, assessed by 4-HNE levels [52]. CBD also protected the brain against oxidative protein damage caused by D-amphetamine in a rat model of mania [53]. On the other hand, CBD induced ubiquitination of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), an indicator of cellular changes in the brain of people with Alzheimer’s disease, when evaluated in human neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y APP+ ) [54]. In addition, CBD treatment has recently been shown to exhibit an unusual protective effect by transporting proteins including multidrug-1 resistance protein and cytosol transferases, such as S-glutathione-M1 transferase, prior to modification by lipid peroxidation products. This prevents elevation of 4-HNE and MDA adduct levels in fibroblast cell culture [55]. It was also shown that this phytocannabinoid reduced the level of small molecular αβ-unsaturated aldehydes in the myocardial tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats and mice with diabetic cardiomyopathy, and in the liver of mice from the acute alcohol intoxication model [21,25,32]. Additionally, CBD caused a reduction in the level of PUFA cyclization products, such as isoprostanes, in the cortex of transgenic mice (APPswe/PS1ΔE9) with Alzheimer’s disease [56]. Thus, CBD protects lipids and proteins against oxidative damage by modulating the level of oxidative stress, which participates in cell signaling pathways.

3.3. Indirect Antioxidant Effects of CBD

Various cell metabolic systems, including the endocannabinoid system, are involved in the regulation of redox balance. Thus, the action of CBD as a phytocannabinoid may support the biological activity of the endocannabinoid system. CBD has recently been shown to modulate the endocannabinoid system activity by increasing anandamide (AEA) levels [5], which can affect cannabinoids signaling, including their interaction on cannabinoid receptors [57]. However, it is known that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), for example, activated by endocannabinoids, directly regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase by interacting with their promoter regions [58]. Therefore, it is believed that the most important antioxidant activity of CBD, like endocannabinoids, is associated with its effect on receptors. CBD, depending on the concentration, can activate, antagonize or inhibit cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), as well as ionotropic (TRP) and nuclear (PPAR) receptors ( Figure 4 ) [52,59,60].

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